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Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb

Alexis femdom free. Porn saxy photo. Tiger In The Wood. Skinny teen model fuck. Violet Monroe And Envy Are Hardcore Lesbians. Bikini model thumbnails. Sexy boys and girls together. Teen sexy slut ass. Tumblr nude wife cooking. Long term relationship goals. It defines multirole superiority. Innovation from nose to tail. Network enabled. Unrivaled multirole capability. Leading-edge avionics, radar, weapon and electronic systems. Advanced technology. Optimum value. To ensure security and affordability. For decades to come. Dear Readers, The memories of the Mumbai attack in November have been Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to obliterate. Terror came from the sea and jolted the security apparatus to the harsh reality that our coastal defences had to be strengthened. As we near the end ofGeopolitics takes stock of our coastal defences. How far have we progressed in the defence of our coastal cities? This web page, the two island territories on the East and West has not only been secured — the comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved — from threats but Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb have been made to make use of the advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Keeping these developments in sight, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb has taken the step to highlight how our islands can play major roles as maritime shields. At the same time, moves have been taken to energise the fishing community to become the eyes and ears of the security agencies and help in the protection of the coastline. There is an insight into the measures taken by the security agencies to take the coastal population into confidence to boost the defences. Amateur lesbian babes are legal age teenagers Adult aol im emoticons.

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The maritime powers post WW-II had. Considering the strategic importance of islands, US, France and UK retained control over the island territories to leverage maritime power to protect their vital strategic national interests in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.

Fuck Veteran Watch Video Pussy chat. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a. However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Pakistan has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident. American citizen David Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot was hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into the consciousness of. This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus. The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations. The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels. Navy would control all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would be given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country. The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force. The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of a new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Management System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry. Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned. The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in shore support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned. Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the creation of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs. The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security. The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard. The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in conjunction with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies. This course is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, maintenance and boat handling. In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen that embody it. The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement. The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Ocean Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze. Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus. The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance completed both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICG , the Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea. As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation. Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's help, the maritime forces will surely be able to devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats. The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air assets in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look out at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a coherent operational picture. Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into a common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to observe suspicious objects in greater detail. In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously too. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations. This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including the coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others. The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised in , while the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean. The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean. The radar deployment in Seychelles comes as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. In , India grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti. Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit that India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Approximately hours of flight testing will be required to complete these tests. Should the IAF so desire, the Hawk-i can be configured to carry air-to-air missiles, precision munitions, rockets and bombs. Production HTT aircraft will be available at a later stage with an armed variant fitted with unguided rockets, iron bombs and a gun pod. The major issues with the HJT were stall related problems which were overcome, but Spin trials could not be completed and production of the Sitara has since been stopped since the many issues plaguing the type are resolved. The Kiran has proved tough, robust and reliable and must be considered a successful design. HAL has also extended the life of Kiran aircraft and the aircraft will now be phased out from service in The Kiran Mk-I has a life of hrs. The induction of the Hawk AJT was. Additional Hawk Mks are also said to be in consideration, though no formal announcement of this requirement has been made till date. The Hawk-i is an indigenous effort by HAL to modernise the Hawk Mk by upgrading the cockpit, displays, avionics, mission computer, head-up display HUD and replacing equipment facing obsolescence. Hawk-i is basically an avionics upgrade and no structural upgrades have been done, the avionics upgrade on the aircraft is similar to what was shown at Aero India. The Hawk-i will be able to carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground weapons and it will have self-defence capabilities through Electronic Warfare EW systems, digital map generator. Other additions are a new dual hot stand-by mission computer. The HTT is an indigenously developed basic trainer aircraft and could enter production next year. India had no other source for procuring weaponry. However, the breakup of the Soviet Union caught India unprepared. It had to seek alternate sources and soon realised that procurement of new weaponry in an environment of open multi-vendor competition is a long, convoluted and arduous process. A need was felt to evolve a detailed and well-structured procedure to facilitate decision making and ensure expeditious procurements. However, it suffered from some major deficiencies, which affected its implementation. Soon thereafter, a comprehensive procurement procedure DPP was put into effect on December It has since been revised eight times and the current version is DPP The defence procedure mandates that all procurements should be carried out in an open, transparent and free competitive environment with maximum number of vendors participating in the bidding process. The procedure repeatedly stresses the importance of generating maximum competition. Unfortunately, despite the fact that DPP has been in operation for the last 15 years, it has failed to deliver, sporadic euphoria notwithstanding. India has not been able to carry out any major defence procurement in a competitive environment without ensuing controversies. Every inked deal has been on single-vendor government-togovernment basis, showing total failure of the much-vaunted procurement procedure. Two issues get flagged. Although a public policy should be dynamic and interactive in nature, it should provide reasonable continuity. Biennial reviews of DPP create an environment of uncertainty and unpredictability. Entrepreneurs get deterred by frequent changes in various provisions. The second issue is about the desirability of excessive dependence on government-to-government deals to meet critical requirements. DPP lacks focus, coherence and rationality. Worse, it has been encumbered with many irrelevant provisions. Unfortunately, it does not possess the necessary acumen, expertise and domain knowledge. It is only in India that drafting of the procedure that governs defence procurements worth billions of dollars is assigned to functionaries who possess no knowledge of economics, financial management and military systems. No wonder that some provisions of the procedure defy logic and are in fact detrimental to Indian interests. The whole procurement regime is characterised by bureaucratic stranglehold. Very limited powers have been delegated to the services. Bureaucrats call all the shots. To start with, all procurement proposals are submitted to the Defence Acquisition Council or the Defence Procurement Board for approval. Both function under MoD. The Acquisition Wing of MoD is the executive arm and is again headed by a bureaucrat. Even the list of vendors who can be called for field trials is approved by MoD. Furthermore, MoD retains the authority to accept Staff Evaluation Report that shortlists technically successful vendors. In other words, bureaucrats of MoD have made the whole system totally captive to their dictates. Thereafter, there is no dialogue between the two. No market survey is ever carried out to provide feedback to SHQ as regards cost-performance relationship of equipment in the world market. SHQ is never asked to reconsider some parameters that may result in huge savings. Most shockingly, after field trials and staff appraisal, SHQ cannot prioritise its selection. All equipment that meet SQR are considered at par. It is for MoD to select the cheapest out of them. In the process, the country suffers as it misses an opportunity to buy the most advanced equipment available in the market with minimal cost accretion. Indian offset policy has huge impact on all major procurements. Since its introduction in , it has undergone many major revisions. The whole policy has turned out to be an amateurish and disjointed effort. It contains many unintelligible and indefinite provisions. Lack of effective monitoring mechanism of offset programmes is another area of concern. It will not be incorrect to state that the offset policy has proved to be a big encumbrance, without. Defence procurements in India are handled by functionaries drawn from the services, bureaucracy and Defence Finance. They are not selected for any special educational qualification or demonstrated capability or displayed flair. They are assigned acquisition functions in routine. Most have no prior experience of handling military hardware and are unable to comprehend intricacies of competing technologies and their inter se evaluation. Worst, no training is imparted to them to prepare them for such critical appointments. This is the single most important reason for the failure of DPP to deliver. After all, a policy is as good as the people who implement it. Government-to-government deals with Russia continue to follow the same arrangement as with the erstwhile Soviet Union. Helicopter and Mi Helicopter. Though a comparatively late entrant, Israel has rapidly established itself as a major supplier. A number of joint development projects are also under implementation with the government owned companies. DCNS is a government owned company and the deal was vigorously promoted by the French leadership, akin to government-to-government trade. Recent purchase of 36 Rafale fighter aircraft from the French government is considered to be a landmark deal. Government-to-government route does have many major benefits. Most importantly, there are no middlemen. The price is generally reasonable as the seller government negotiates the price with the manufacturer. India is saved considerable time, effort and expenditure. With sovereign guarantees, quality, performance parameters and after sales support are assured. India gets complex weapon systems fully integrated and configured. Hence, this route is ideal in respect of the latest systems, which no other nation possesses or is ready to offer. It implies that the equipment should undisputedly be the best available and there should be no need to carry out comparative trials. On the other hand, government-. All countries develop defence equipment keeping in mind their capabilities, doctrine and envisaged operational exploitation. It is not feasible for any seller to modify an existing weapon system to suit Indian parameters — both on account of expediency and economic considerations. If India wants any equipment, it has to accept it as it exists. In a multi-vendor environment, India can ask all vendors to submit techno-commercial proposals as per the parameters evolved by it to suit its operational needs. On the other hand, every governmentto-government deal violates the said principle. It must nonetheless be admitted here that even DPP recognises the fact that the standard procedure cannot be followed in cases where procurements are required to be done from friendly foreign countries on a single vendor basis on mutually agreed terms between the two governments. Whereas the desirability of procuring equipment in an open and competitive environment cannot be disputed, government-to-government deals prove beneficial for complex hi-tech defence systems. Such deals are invariably based on politico-military decisions. These include accruing geo-strategic advantages; imperatives of strategic partnerships; and major diplomatic, political, economic, technological and military benefits. In other words, governmentto-government deals promote national foreign policy objectives and generally form a part of larger packages to cement ties between the two countries. Government-to-government route precludes wider competition and trials. Thus, this route should be adopted after due diligence and not as a matter of routine convenience. It should normally be adopted to procure cutting-edge equipment that is unavailable from any alternate source. Absence of middlemen is another factor of overriding consideration. Allegations of corruption and slush money have been plaguing every deal concluded with business houses. As Franklin D. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something. A complete change-over is overdue. Minor modifications and cosmetic changes mean little and result only in selfillusion and complacency. Governmentto-government route should be an exception rather than the rule. India must curb its penchant for resorting to this route to circumvent convolutions of DPP. There is no substitute for a wellevolved procurement procedure. The author is a retired Major General. With a formal Request for Proposal RFP expected to be issued next year, it would take a minimum of three to five years for a formal contract to be awarded if past procurements are any indicator. A contract award by and entry of the first helicopters by would be the ideal scenario. To bolster its existing fleet of obsolete fleet of utility helicopters, the Navy had placed an order with HAL for eight Chetak helicopters and two spare engines in August this year. Of the 32 helicopters to be built by HAL, 16 each would be shared by both the services. The Ministry of Defence MoD. It is expected that the pintle-mounted machine guns will be installed on air force Mi V5 helicopters or the Dhruv. The 7. The procurement process is to start next year and it is planned to commence fitment of the machine guns onto the helicopters with months of the contract signature. The Coast Guard has also been another beneficiary of the improved procurement climate, having taken delivery of six new interceptor boats over the last few months and also adding new offshore patrol vessels OPVs. In addition to the latest DAC approval for procurement. The towed array sonar ACTAS operates in the low-frequency range and permits surveillance of the sea space at ranges in excess of 60 kilometers, depending on the sound propagation conditions of the water. ACTAS provides warships with an exceptional operational range advantage over both the operational range of radars and weapons systems employed by submarines. The pace of defence procurement has picked up and must continue to allow the armed forces to recapitalise their assets, that have drawn down due to retirement of platforms and obsolescence. If tiny Israel with its back to the sea can repeatedly defeat much larger Arab countries in multi-front wars over the past 70 years, India with virtually unlimited resources should at the very least achieve a Mexican standoff in a. It was superior training, tactics, morale and equipment that ensured a Jewish victory. The two-front threat is not new. In the War, the. Indian Army moved divisions from the mountains to the Lahore front only after it was convinced that the remaining forces could undertake a holding operation if the Chinese opened a second front. Again, in the War, the Indian Army waited until the Himalayan passes were snowed under — effectively blocking out the PLA — before launching its blitzkrieg into Pakistan. How realistic is the two-front scenario? Opium War. Considering how often the military leadership has been right — and how often the politicians have blundered — it would be ill-advised to disregard the statements by both the army and air force chiefs that India must be prepared for a worst case scenario. On September 6, Army Chief General Bipin Rawat said the country must be prepared for a potential twofront war with China and Pakistan as reconciliation with the latter looked bleak. It has come to the point that Pakistani commentators are describing. If we characterise Pakistan-China militaryto-military relations, the three key terms are all-weather brotherhood, high-level mutual assistance and support and deep-rooted strategic mutual trust. This is because the Chinese and Pakistani world views are uncannily similar. The Chinese elites want to restore the country to the glory days of the Middle Kingdom, implying that the country occupies a central position in the world, and therefore China is superior to all other nations. Similarly, many Pakistanis dream of restoring the Mughal Empire over the Indian subcontinent. Considering such deep-rooted hostility from two nuclear armed adversaries, India should be in a state of constant battle readiness. The government should be prepared to spend at least 5 per cent of its GDP on defence. For, it is better to spend 5 per cent on defending all that is dear to us than to lose 50 per cent of it in war. Sparta, the warlike Greek state, was in a perpetual state of war readiness. On several occasions Greece was saved from defeat because, unlike the other city states, Spartans trained for war days of the year. A few months after the victory, the late K Subrahmanyam wrote: It is obvious that the latter can only. Consequently, our force requirements must be planned to achieve this aim. One, launch a multipronged blitzkrieg into Pakistan and capture bite-size km chunks of territory. This will ensure a quick capitulation without setting off fears in Islamabad that India wants to break it up like in Only if Islamabad wants, will the war escalate to the nuclear stage. Quick reaction mountain divisions should be able to form an impenetrable wall that acts as a meat grinder for the invading forces. This might come as news to many. As the chief commander of the Eastern Army, Jacob had to deal with two IAF command headquarters — one in Shillong and the other hundreds of kilometres away in Allahabad — which posed coordination problems for the army. Because Maneckshaw refused to speak to Lall, Jacob had to meet the Air Chief Marshal in person in order to sort out the issue. Such decision making paralysis could prove suicidal in a future highintensity war that may be fought in a nuclear environment. With both China and Pakistan aiming for fourth generation warfare capability, operational synergy among the three forces must be at the heart of strategic planning. India must also transform from having a military based on quantity to a military based on quality. The creation of a new South-Western Army Command is an indication that the army has initiated the process of acquiring a greater offensive punch along the entire western front with Pakistan. Once perfected, Cold Start will allow India to mobilise fast and strike hard. India also has to strategically counter the military asymmetry with China in the eastern sector. The vast network of roads and railways developed by China in Tibet, which borders India from eastern Ladakh to Arunachal Pradesh, allows the PLA to easily mobilise forces quickly, thereby retaining the flexibility to field a balanced fighting force at a number of places. In contrast, border roads in India continue to be neglected and survey work for railway lines in the critical Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh started only this year. The equally important Bilaspur-ManaliLeh corridor is under way but it is in the slow lane. 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India has islands and a large number of these islands are located almost all along the maritime boundary. Andaman and Nicobar. Islands and Lakshadweep group of islands give India a strategic advantage that no other country has in the northern Indian Ocean.

These group of islands are a strategic leverage in relation to Chinese military advantages in the Northern theatre. Lakshadweep group of island have a different problem it has the potential of subversion of the population due to proximity to Maldives and influence of radicals over the Muslim population. Given the threat andendeavour of the adversaries to weaken the control over these territories, India should secure these strategic pivots under an impregnable armour.

If secured and developed these small pieces of land in the open sea has the potential to be part of maritime shield of India. India has the potential to be a net security provider along the SLOCs and also against non-traditional threats to the island nations of the IOR. Continue reading view of the rising significance, the island territories are under threat of illegal immigration, subversion of population and Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb of uninhabited territories.

This can disrupt the plan for development of these islands as the military outposts and maritime hub centres. Islands territories have economic, national security and political ramification in the long term. Islands as strategic pivots in the high seas: Islands offer vast manoeuvring space and provides depth and reach to project power beyond territorial boundaries. Islands act as forward military posts, surveillance posts, logistic bases, unsinkable aircraft carrier, pivot for projection of powers in omni-direction, pivot for anti-access and area denial and a potent tool of maritime deterrence.

It is most vital asset to secure click, maintain a permanent Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb at areas of vital national interests and acts as formidable shield to the peninsula. Island territories are irreplaceable in. Islands as ocean wealth: Oceans are fast turning into reservoirs of resources Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb sustain economic development.

Andaman group of islands have added approximately sq km of Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ and Lakshadweep group of islands have added approximately. Blue economy is based on the ocean for food, fuel and raw materials. Islands act Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb sea bases for exploration, logistic support and storage of raw materials for transportation to mainland. These islands would ultimately pave the passage to prosperity from the ocean.

Fuck Lazarus Watch Video Wwwwxxxc Movie. During the implementation of Coastal Security Scheme Phase-I, various Coastal Security measures including the supply of interceptor boats were undertaken. The scheme has been implemented up to March Thus, several communities related and localised measures have been undertaken by both the Central and State governments over the last nine years, aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering apparatus for a gapless coastal security surveillance and actionable intelligence using human and technical sources. At least, 26 foreign nationals were among those killed by the terrorists. The terrorists, arrived in Mumbai on the night of November 26, after travelling from Karachi by sea. All of them, save one - Ajmal Kasab, - were eventually killed in counter-terror operations. Kasab, captured alive, was sentenced to death by a special anti-terror court in May , and hanged at the Yerawada central prison in Pune in November At least 18 Indian security personnel were killed in the attack. Among them were Mumbai Anti-Terrorist squad chief. It was Omble's supreme sacrifice that made the capture of Ajmal Kasab possible. On the night of November 26 near Girgaum Chowpatty, he grabbed the barrel of Kasab's assault rifle, and - when. Lashkar-e-Taiba operations commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi stands accused - along with six others - of abetment to murder, attempted murder, and planning and executing the Mumbai attack, in a case that has been drawn out for more than seven years in Pakistan. Ashok Kamte er accused, former LeT member Sufayan Zafar - who was arrested on charges that he financed the Mumbai attacks - was last year absolved by Pakistan's Federal Investigative Agency. The prosecution in the trial, on its part, said in October that India hadn't responded to Pakistan's request that it send 24 witnesses in the case to testify in court and that the case couldn't move forward until India did so. The seven persons accused of planning and executing the Mumbai attacks - including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi - in September challenged the legality of a Pakistani judicial commission which went to India in to probe the attacks. Lakhvi was released from prison on bail in Hafiz Saeed, founder of the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT and the chief of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa or JuD, a charity organisation considered to be a cover for the LeT , is another key mastermind of the attack. Pakistan, too, gave in to international pressure and banned the JuD, and placed Hafiz Saeed under house arrest for months, but ended up letting him go. He now lives as a free citizen in Lahore, and India's demands that he be brought to book have been met with the response that Pakistan doesn't have the evidence it needs to prosecute him. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a. However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Pakistan has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident. American citizen David Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot was hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into the consciousness of. This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus. The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations. The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels. Navy would control all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would be given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country. The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force. The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of a new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Management System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry. Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned. The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in shore support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned. Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the creation of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs. The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security. The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard. The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in conjunction with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies. This course is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, maintenance and boat handling. In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen that embody it. The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement. The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Ocean Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze. Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus. The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance completed both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICG , the Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea. As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation. Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's help, the maritime forces will surely be able to devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats. The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air assets in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look out at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a coherent operational picture. Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into a common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to observe suspicious objects in greater detail. In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously too. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations. This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including the coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others. The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised in , while the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean. The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean. The radar deployment in Seychelles comes as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. In , India grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti. Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit that India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Approximately hours of flight testing will be required to complete these tests. Should the IAF so desire, the Hawk-i can be configured to carry air-to-air missiles, precision munitions, rockets and bombs. Production HTT aircraft will be available at a later stage with an armed variant fitted with unguided rockets, iron bombs and a gun pod. The major issues with the HJT were stall related problems which were overcome, but Spin trials could not be completed and production of the Sitara has since been stopped since the many issues plaguing the type are resolved. The Kiran has proved tough, robust and reliable and must be considered a successful design. HAL has also extended the life of Kiran aircraft and the aircraft will now be phased out from service in The Kiran Mk-I has a life of hrs. The induction of the Hawk AJT was. Additional Hawk Mks are also said to be in consideration, though no formal announcement of this requirement has been made till date. The Hawk-i is an indigenous effort by HAL to modernise the Hawk Mk by upgrading the cockpit, displays, avionics, mission computer, head-up display HUD and replacing equipment facing obsolescence. Hawk-i is basically an avionics upgrade and no structural upgrades have been done, the avionics upgrade on the aircraft is similar to what was shown at Aero India. The Hawk-i will be able to carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground weapons and it will have self-defence capabilities through Electronic Warfare EW systems, digital map generator. Other additions are a new dual hot stand-by mission computer. The HTT is an indigenously developed basic trainer aircraft and could enter production next year. India had no other source for procuring weaponry. However, the breakup of the Soviet Union caught India unprepared. It had to seek alternate sources and soon realised that procurement of new weaponry in an environment of open multi-vendor competition is a long, convoluted and arduous process. A need was felt to evolve a detailed and well-structured procedure to facilitate decision making and ensure expeditious procurements. However, it suffered from some major deficiencies, which affected its implementation. Soon thereafter, a comprehensive procurement procedure DPP was put into effect on December It has since been revised eight times and the current version is DPP The defence procedure mandates that all procurements should be carried out in an open, transparent and free competitive environment with maximum number of vendors participating in the bidding process. The procedure repeatedly stresses the importance of generating maximum competition. Unfortunately, despite the fact that DPP has been in operation for the last 15 years, it has failed to deliver, sporadic euphoria notwithstanding. India has not been able to carry out any major defence procurement in a competitive environment without ensuing controversies. Every inked deal has been on single-vendor government-togovernment basis, showing total failure of the much-vaunted procurement procedure. Two issues get flagged. Although a public policy should be dynamic and interactive in nature, it should provide reasonable continuity. Biennial reviews of DPP create an environment of uncertainty and unpredictability. Entrepreneurs get deterred by frequent changes in various provisions. The second issue is about the desirability of excessive dependence on government-to-government deals to meet critical requirements. DPP lacks focus, coherence and rationality. Worse, it has been encumbered with many irrelevant provisions. Unfortunately, it does not possess the necessary acumen, expertise and domain knowledge. It is only in India that drafting of the procedure that governs defence procurements worth billions of dollars is assigned to functionaries who possess no knowledge of economics, financial management and military systems. No wonder that some provisions of the procedure defy logic and are in fact detrimental to Indian interests. The whole procurement regime is characterised by bureaucratic stranglehold. Very limited powers have been delegated to the services. Bureaucrats call all the shots. To start with, all procurement proposals are submitted to the Defence Acquisition Council or the Defence Procurement Board for approval. Both function under MoD. The Acquisition Wing of MoD is the executive arm and is again headed by a bureaucrat. Even the list of vendors who can be called for field trials is approved by MoD. Furthermore, MoD retains the authority to accept Staff Evaluation Report that shortlists technically successful vendors. In other words, bureaucrats of MoD have made the whole system totally captive to their dictates. Thereafter, there is no dialogue between the two. No market survey is ever carried out to provide feedback to SHQ as regards cost-performance relationship of equipment in the world market. SHQ is never asked to reconsider some parameters that may result in huge savings. Most shockingly, after field trials and staff appraisal, SHQ cannot prioritise its selection. All equipment that meet SQR are considered at par. It is for MoD to select the cheapest out of them. In the process, the country suffers as it misses an opportunity to buy the most advanced equipment available in the market with minimal cost accretion. Indian offset policy has huge impact on all major procurements. Since its introduction in , it has undergone many major revisions. The whole policy has turned out to be an amateurish and disjointed effort. It contains many unintelligible and indefinite provisions. Lack of effective monitoring mechanism of offset programmes is another area of concern. It will not be incorrect to state that the offset policy has proved to be a big encumbrance, without. Defence procurements in India are handled by functionaries drawn from the services, bureaucracy and Defence Finance. They are not selected for any special educational qualification or demonstrated capability or displayed flair. They are assigned acquisition functions in routine. Most have no prior experience of handling military hardware and are unable to comprehend intricacies of competing technologies and their inter se evaluation. Worst, no training is imparted to them to prepare them for such critical appointments. This is the single most important reason for the failure of DPP to deliver. After all, a policy is as good as the people who implement it. Government-to-government deals with Russia continue to follow the same arrangement as with the erstwhile Soviet Union. Helicopter and Mi Helicopter. Though a comparatively late entrant, Israel has rapidly established itself as a major supplier. A number of joint development projects are also under implementation with the government owned companies. DCNS is a government owned company and the deal was vigorously promoted by the French leadership, akin to government-to-government trade. Recent purchase of 36 Rafale fighter aircraft from the French government is considered to be a landmark deal. Government-to-government route does have many major benefits. Most importantly, there are no middlemen. The price is generally reasonable as the seller government negotiates the price with the manufacturer. India is saved considerable time, effort and expenditure. With sovereign guarantees, quality, performance parameters and after sales support are assured. India gets complex weapon systems fully integrated and configured. Hence, this route is ideal in respect of the latest systems, which no other nation possesses or is ready to offer. It implies that the equipment should undisputedly be the best available and there should be no need to carry out comparative trials. On the other hand, government-. All countries develop defence equipment keeping in mind their capabilities, doctrine and envisaged operational exploitation. It is not feasible for any seller to modify an existing weapon system to suit Indian parameters — both on account of expediency and economic considerations. If India wants any equipment, it has to accept it as it exists. In a multi-vendor environment, India can ask all vendors to submit techno-commercial proposals as per the parameters evolved by it to suit its operational needs. On the other hand, every governmentto-government deal violates the said principle. It must nonetheless be admitted here that even DPP recognises the fact that the standard procedure cannot be followed in cases where procurements are required to be done from friendly foreign countries on a single vendor basis on mutually agreed terms between the two governments. Whereas the desirability of procuring equipment in an open and competitive environment cannot be disputed, government-to-government deals prove beneficial for complex hi-tech defence systems. Such deals are invariably based on politico-military decisions. These include accruing geo-strategic advantages; imperatives of strategic partnerships; and major diplomatic, political, economic, technological and military benefits. In other words, governmentto-government deals promote national foreign policy objectives and generally form a part of larger packages to cement ties between the two countries. Government-to-government route precludes wider competition and trials. Thus, this route should be adopted after due diligence and not as a matter of routine convenience. It should normally be adopted to procure cutting-edge equipment that is unavailable from any alternate source. Absence of middlemen is another factor of overriding consideration. Allegations of corruption and slush money have been plaguing every deal concluded with business houses. As Franklin D. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something. A complete change-over is overdue. Minor modifications and cosmetic changes mean little and result only in selfillusion and complacency. Governmentto-government route should be an exception rather than the rule. India must curb its penchant for resorting to this route to circumvent convolutions of DPP. There is no substitute for a wellevolved procurement procedure. The author is a retired Major General. With a formal Request for Proposal RFP expected to be issued next year, it would take a minimum of three to five years for a formal contract to be awarded if past procurements are any indicator. A contract award by and entry of the first helicopters by would be the ideal scenario. To bolster its existing fleet of obsolete fleet of utility helicopters, the Navy had placed an order with HAL for eight Chetak helicopters and two spare engines in August this year. Of the 32 helicopters to be built by HAL, 16 each would be shared by both the services. The Ministry of Defence MoD. It is expected that the pintle-mounted machine guns will be installed on air force Mi V5 helicopters or the Dhruv. The 7. The procurement process is to start next year and it is planned to commence fitment of the machine guns onto the helicopters with months of the contract signature. The Coast Guard has also been another beneficiary of the improved procurement climate, having taken delivery of six new interceptor boats over the last few months and also adding new offshore patrol vessels OPVs. In addition to the latest DAC approval for procurement. The towed array sonar ACTAS operates in the low-frequency range and permits surveillance of the sea space at ranges in excess of 60 kilometers, depending on the sound propagation conditions of the water. ACTAS provides warships with an exceptional operational range advantage over both the operational range of radars and weapons systems employed by submarines. The pace of defence procurement has picked up and must continue to allow the armed forces to recapitalise their assets, that have drawn down due to retirement of platforms and obsolescence. If tiny Israel with its back to the sea can repeatedly defeat much larger Arab countries in multi-front wars over the past 70 years, India with virtually unlimited resources should at the very least achieve a Mexican standoff in a. It was superior training, tactics, morale and equipment that ensured a Jewish victory. The two-front threat is not new. In the War, the. Indian Army moved divisions from the mountains to the Lahore front only after it was convinced that the remaining forces could undertake a holding operation if the Chinese opened a second front. Again, in the War, the Indian Army waited until the Himalayan passes were snowed under — effectively blocking out the PLA — before launching its blitzkrieg into Pakistan. How realistic is the two-front scenario? Opium War. Considering how often the military leadership has been right — and how often the politicians have blundered — it would be ill-advised to disregard the statements by both the army and air force chiefs that India must be prepared for a worst case scenario. On September 6, Army Chief General Bipin Rawat said the country must be prepared for a potential twofront war with China and Pakistan as reconciliation with the latter looked bleak. It has come to the point that Pakistani commentators are describing. If we characterise Pakistan-China militaryto-military relations, the three key terms are all-weather brotherhood, high-level mutual assistance and support and deep-rooted strategic mutual trust. This is because the Chinese and Pakistani world views are uncannily similar. The Chinese elites want to restore the country to the glory days of the Middle Kingdom, implying that the country occupies a central position in the world, and therefore China is superior to all other nations. Similarly, many Pakistanis dream of restoring the Mughal Empire over the Indian subcontinent. Considering such deep-rooted hostility from two nuclear armed adversaries, India should be in a state of constant battle readiness. The government should be prepared to spend at least 5 per cent of its GDP on defence. For, it is better to spend 5 per cent on defending all that is dear to us than to lose 50 per cent of it in war. Sparta, the warlike Greek state, was in a perpetual state of war readiness. On several occasions Greece was saved from defeat because, unlike the other city states, Spartans trained for war days of the year. A few months after the victory, the late K Subrahmanyam wrote: Download Download video in p quality 7. Leave a comment Comments Compilation of Massive Facials: More Girls Chat with x Hamster Live girls now! Comments 38 Spam comments 0. Please log in or register to post comments. If spammers comment on your content, only you can see and manage such comments Delete all. Do you see how fine those women are? He really had no choice but to let that much out everytime. Who's the best Brazilian?: This guy or the guy from Brazilian Facials? Brilliant music..

In fact, the island territories add to the value of ocean wealth and make deep sea mining a possibility. It is a matter of time when India will be able to commercially mine gas from Andaman Sea. Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb maintain food self-sufficiency Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb will have to explore and exploit the marine food commercially.

Andaman Nicobar Islands are just 22 nautical miles from Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, 90 nautical miles from Indonesia and nautical miles from Thailand. It gives India an option to establish greater bilateral relations for mutual cooperation for trade, tourism and cultural exchange programme. Presence of military on these islands does help to take proactive actions Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb extending assistance during humanitarian crisis.

These islands also assist in prevention of crimes on the high seas. Islands can be effectively used as tool of military diplomacy with the neighbouring states. Island territories have been vulnerable to Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb immigrants because large number of these islands and atolls are uninhabited.

Andaman and Nicobar group of islands are under pressure from the migrants from Bangladesh, Rohingya from Myanmar and even criminals. Unfortunately the political patronage is always forthcoming as a result Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Andaman Nicobar islands are under constant threat of colonisation. Colonisation impacts security and makes it difficult for the government to create infrastructure since real estate is at premium on the islands and squatters under the garb of humanitarian angle make it a political issue to disrupt the process of infrastructure development.

Subversion of population: Andaman group of islands and even Lakshadweep are already facing the problem of radicalisation of Muslim. These islands have the potential of being used for electronic interception, monitoring of SLOCs, radar sites for interception of missiles and maritime activities apart from basing the air and naval assets.

It is not possible to convert islands into fortress by fencing hence are prone to subversive elements entering and exiting from the islands. Threat from non-state actors: The threat could be even through state sponsored non-state actors. There have been cases where even Chinese fishing trawlers were seen operating in Andaman Sea close to the islands.

Gunrunning, drugs and narcotics trafficking and trans-nationalcriminal syndicatescould pose serious threat in connivance with theradicalised youths. They can cause serious damage to critical infrastructure and disrupt developmental activities with the support of subverted population.

Encroachment and poaching within EEZ: The EEZs are fast becoming a source of blue economy and treasure of huge raw materials. The rising population, harsh living conditions and competition for resource acquisition among the rim nations has increased the necessity to protect EEZ more vigorously. Almost 34 per cent of Bangladesh population is dependent upon fishing in rivers and open sea and thus trespassing of maritime boundary for fishing in Indian EEZ is happening frequently.

It creates a situation of rift between maritime neighboursand also lead to unsustainable poaching and loot of marine resources. Raising bogey of sovereignty: Islands have always been a constant source of claims and counter claims of sovereignty among the maritime neighbours.

Case in point has been, Kachchatheevu Island between India Sri Lanka, New Moore Island that is now submerged in water and Coco Island that has become a big source of anxiety for India due to alleged presence of Chinese military on the island. Islands are important link to make a formidable maritime shield to secure the mainland.

The geostrategic strength of the islands are required to be consolidated and vulnerabilities are required to be eliminated by development of infrastructure, building military capabilities, and putting in place a robust mechanism to prevent illegal immigration and subversion of population.

Boots on the ground on major islands: Islands cannot be guarded in the open sea by remote control. Presence of costal police and amphibious forces is imperative so that they are able to keep an eye on the dispersed island territories. The forces deployed to secure islands should be able to reach the desired locations using Air Sea and land routes Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb non-state actors or subversive elements are able to cause collateral damage.

Apart article source physical domination electronic surveillance of the islands have become a necessity. The deployment of forces should not be sacrosanct but based on periodic review of security threats. This review would also determine how much land forces, air Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb naval assets should be check this out to secure these islands.

Maritime surveillance: Physical domination of sea is becoming most important to secure the islands. There is a Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb for comprehensive maritime surveillance by sea, air and electronically.

Endeavour should be that someone should always be looking at these critical assets in the sea from ground, air, spaceand from the sea. Rapid reaction by air and sea: Rapid reaction by air and sea is vital. Best way to defend own territories is to have proactive approach.

This would require Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb elements of air, ground and naval assets to be in readiness profile to react to any contingency that may arise to the unoccupied islands and critical infrastructure. Development of islands as unsinkable aircraft carriers: These islands would become strategic assets if Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb are developed as comprehensive military bases that are able to project power and secure far seas.

Enough has been written on it however, what. If the islands are holding lethal military capabilities it would have deterrence value but if they are without military wherewithal they become liability and vulnerable to encroachment. Control of movement Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb population: Illegal migration due to extreme poverty, harsh living conditions among South Asian nations and subversive designs of adversaries needs to be checked.

There is a need to check antecedents of all citizens and deport the illegal immigrants. Population census in island territories is easy to monitor but authorities have to ensure that illegal immigrants deported and alsopunished for breaking the laws of. Infrastructure development and environmental balance: There is a need to maintain Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb in environmental protection and infrastructure development.

When it comes to development of critical strategic infrastructure environmental laws need to be relaxed. If a radar site has to be created it should not be prevented due to natural habitat of birds or animals. There are geographical constraints for creation of special infrastructure and thus environmental laws in such cases should be relaxed or waved. Darshana M. India must not create a mistake by deferring capability development. There is no scope to lose these islands by passive aggression through forced occupation of critical land mass in the high seas.

If certain islands are required to be vacated of population for strategic and security reasons, government should be firm and do it for the nation. But that does not mean abandon the legitimate Indians their right to life.

Such people should be relocated and their life support system reestablished after relocation. The fishing community and the residents of the coastal areas can act as the eyes and ears of the India security agencies in protecting the vast coastline of India against enemy evil designs. This Geopolitics Bureau compilation enumerates the measures taken by the security agencies in taking the coastal population into confidence in this task.

Statewise Standard Operating Procedures SOPs for coordination among several agencies on coastal security issues Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb also been instituted. The existing surveillance system for maritime. The NC3I. Further, the National Automatic Identification System NAIS chain, comprising 87 stations is also functional and to enhance the presence of Coast Guard along the coastal areas, Coast Guard Stations have increased from 22 in to 42 in The National Committee on Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security NCSMCSunder the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary, is the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb body to monitor the progress in respect of coastal security initiatives including any shortfall and decides on measures to plug the gaps.

Various measures were taken to strengthen coastal security like Navy's Joint Operations Centres as command and control hubs for coastal security at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair are fully operational.

In addition to continuous patrolling by Navy and Coast Guard, modern technical measures have also been implemented for coastal surveillance, by way of a chain of 74 Automatic Identification System AIS receivers, for gapless cover along the entire coast, according to the navy. Inthe National Command Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Communication and Intelligence Network NC3I was set in National Capital Region to over-arching coastal security network collates data about all ships, dhows, fishing boats and all other vessels operating near our coast, from multiple technical sources including the AIS and radar chain.

This Nodal Hub for the coastal security of our country, which has been conceptualised by the Indian Navy, is a major step in the establishment of a coastal security shield along the coast. In Februarythe Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Coast Guard ICG was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters, including Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to be patrolled by the Coastal Police.

The Coast Guard is also responsible for overall coordination between Central and State agencies Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb matters relating to Coastal Security. This notification makes it compulsory for the boats to become identifiable at all times when they are sailing out at sea. In separate instructions, issued by the Ministry of Shipping, the government also wanted to ensure all fishing boats and vessels are registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, an umbrella law, as against the current practice of registering them separately under their respective state government enacted marine and fisheries regulation laws, based on their size and its opertions and use.

The notifications were issued on June 24,small comparison Big wife cock it was then source that these measures would bring about uniformity in the registration of all types of sea-faring vessels that are not large cargo vessels.

The aim of these instructions were to ensure there was no doubt about the identity of the vessels when venturing into the sea and that there was a record of all the vessels that go out fishing in Indian waters. This also made it easy to know who owned the vessels in a centralised data system. This practice of keeping records through easily identifiable Automatic Identification System transponders, it was expected, would go a long way to prevent November Mumbaistyle terror attacks, where MV Kuber, an Indian fishing boat, was hijacked.

The Pakistani terrorists, including Ajmal Amir Kasab who was arrested, had boarded MV Kuber in international waters off the coast of Gujarat after seizing it from the fishermen on the high seas. The terrorists easily slipped into Mumbai, by sailing close to the shore article source around four https://desk.capitalcityfoundation.london/page2878-qezi.php miles off Mumbai and then they got into motorised rubber dingies to reach the shore itself.

The terrorists had killed the vessel's pilot, Amarsinh Solanki, before they hit the Mumbai shores. The notifications read more ensure fishing vessels registration came about after it was felt among the Indian security apparatus that had MV Kuber been fitted with a sophisticated AIS transponder, under a centralised services system, it could have been easily detected.

This would have been possible through a coded messaging system on the transponders for the pilots of the vessels to use and communicate with the security agencies in case of distress, such as hijacking or theft or robbery. Currently, only the bigger ships use such transponders and this facility is now available too smaller boats too. The transponders are devices that help sea-faring vessels to electronically exchange data, including their identity.

A fishing boat returning home: Such boats are often hijacked by smugglers and terrorists for illegal activities. Saab implemented the entire gamut of the project, which included installation, commissioning, training and support, along with their Indian Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, Elcome Marine Services. The project was signed by Saab and Elcome Marine Services combine in November and it was completed ahead of schedule during in Elcome has delivered the see more network, VSATs, leased lines, installation, project management, design, and installation.

Elcome with support from Saab will be maintaining the system for till The NAIS network has suitable interfaces and these have already been incorporated for adding radar, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb and other sensors.

The system has already been integrated with existing radar and AIS in the country to provide a holistic overview of the coastal maritime domain. The NAIS network would thus play a vital role in meeting the long-term coastal surveillance needs of India.

This project is one of the largest national AIS- based coastal surveillance systems ever to be deployed. Regular exercises are conducted to validate these SOPs. To revalidate the coastal security mechanism and bring awareness among the fishermen at sea, regular boarding operations are also being conducted to validate and check the credentials of the occupants of the vessels including their Identity Cards and Registration Documents.

Based on intelligence inputs, Coastal Security operations are conducted by the ICG in coordination with other stakeholders.

To develop their capacity, the ICG has been imparting regular training to Marine Police personnel since The training. The ICG contributes towards development and implementation of an effective Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb mechanism to combat seaborne threats. Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb security matrix of the ICG encompasses a host of operations and involves measures undertaken to address Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb security, offshore security, anti-terrorism, anti-piracy and port security.

Nationwide, over such exercises have been conducted till date sinceand this has strengthened coastal security markedly. The issue of ID cards to all fishermen with a single centralised database, registration of over 2 lakh fishing vessels operating off our coasts and equipping fishing boats with suitable equipment, to facilitate vessel identification and tracking are some of the other steps. Our fishing communities are adept mariners, whose cooperation is indispensable to our maritime security.

This has been achieved by spreading awareness in these communities through coastal security awareness campaigns, conducted by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, in all coastal districts of the country. During these campaigns, fishermen have been strongly advised and warned Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to cross the International Maritime Boundary as it is in the interest of their safety.

Fishermen today own GPS receivers and are therefore fully aware of their positions at sea. During the implementation of Coastal Security Scheme Phase-I, various Coastal Security measures including the supply of interceptor boats were undertaken.

Vintage groupsex Watch Video Bangaladesy Porn. The maritime powers post WW-II had. Considering the strategic importance of islands, US, France and UK retained control over the island territories to leverage maritime power to protect their vital strategic national interests in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean. India has islands and a large number of these islands are located almost all along the maritime boundary. Andaman and Nicobar. Islands and Lakshadweep group of islands give India a strategic advantage that no other country has in the northern Indian Ocean. These group of islands are a strategic leverage in relation to Chinese military advantages in the Northern theatre. Lakshadweep group of island have a different problem it has the potential of subversion of the population due to proximity to Maldives and influence of radicals over the Muslim population. Given the threat andendeavour of the adversaries to weaken the control over these territories, India should secure these strategic pivots under an impregnable armour. If secured and developed these small pieces of land in the open sea has the potential to be part of maritime shield of India. India has the potential to be a net security provider along the SLOCs and also against non-traditional threats to the island nations of the IOR. In view of the rising significance, the island territories are under threat of illegal immigration, subversion of population and occupation of uninhabited territories. This can disrupt the plan for development of these islands as the military outposts and maritime hub centres. Islands territories have economic, national security and political ramification in the long term. Islands as strategic pivots in the high seas: Islands offer vast manoeuvring space and provides depth and reach to project power beyond territorial boundaries. Islands act as forward military posts, surveillance posts, logistic bases, unsinkable aircraft carrier, pivot for projection of powers in omni-direction, pivot for anti-access and area denial and a potent tool of maritime deterrence. It is most vital asset to secure seas, maintain a permanent presence at areas of vital national interests and acts as formidable shield to the peninsula. Island territories are irreplaceable in. Islands as ocean wealth: Oceans are fast turning into reservoirs of resources to sustain economic development. Andaman group of islands have added approximately sq km of Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ and Lakshadweep group of islands have added approximately. Blue economy is based on the ocean for food, fuel and raw materials. Islands act as sea bases for exploration, logistic support and storage of raw materials for transportation to mainland. These islands would ultimately pave the passage to prosperity from the ocean. In fact, the island territories add to the value of ocean wealth and make deep sea mining a possibility. It is a matter of time when India will be able to commercially mine gas from Andaman Sea. To maintain food self-sufficiency India will have to explore and exploit the marine food commercially. Andaman Nicobar Islands are just 22 nautical miles from Myanmar, 90 nautical miles from Indonesia and nautical miles from Thailand. It gives India an option to establish greater bilateral relations for mutual cooperation for trade, tourism and cultural exchange programme. Presence of military on these islands does help to take proactive actions while extending assistance during humanitarian crisis. These islands also assist in prevention of crimes on the high seas. Islands can be effectively used as tool of military diplomacy with the neighbouring states. Island territories have been vulnerable to illegal immigrants because large number of these islands and atolls are uninhabited. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands are under pressure from the migrants from Bangladesh, Rohingya from Myanmar and even criminals. Unfortunately the political patronage is always forthcoming as a result the Andaman Nicobar islands are under constant threat of colonisation. Colonisation impacts security and makes it difficult for the government to create infrastructure since real estate is at premium on the islands and squatters under the garb of humanitarian angle make it a political issue to disrupt the process of infrastructure development. Subversion of population: Andaman group of islands and even Lakshadweep are already facing the problem of radicalisation of Muslim. These islands have the potential of being used for electronic interception, monitoring of SLOCs, radar sites for interception of missiles and maritime activities apart from basing the air and naval assets. It is not possible to convert islands into fortress by fencing hence are prone to subversive elements entering and exiting from the islands. Threat from non-state actors: The threat could be even through state sponsored non-state actors. There have been cases where even Chinese fishing trawlers were seen operating in Andaman Sea close to the islands. Gunrunning, drugs and narcotics trafficking and trans-nationalcriminal syndicatescould pose serious threat in connivance with theradicalised youths. They can cause serious damage to critical infrastructure and disrupt developmental activities with the support of subverted population. Encroachment and poaching within EEZ: The EEZs are fast becoming a source of blue economy and treasure of huge raw materials. The rising population, harsh living conditions and competition for resource acquisition among the rim nations has increased the necessity to protect EEZ more vigorously. Almost 34 per cent of Bangladesh population is dependent upon fishing in rivers and open sea and thus trespassing of maritime boundary for fishing in Indian EEZ is happening frequently. It creates a situation of rift between maritime neighboursand also lead to unsustainable poaching and loot of marine resources. Raising bogey of sovereignty: Islands have always been a constant source of claims and counter claims of sovereignty among the maritime neighbours. Case in point has been, Kachchatheevu Island between India Sri Lanka, New Moore Island that is now submerged in water and Coco Island that has become a big source of anxiety for India due to alleged presence of Chinese military on the island. Islands are important link to make a formidable maritime shield to secure the mainland. The geostrategic strength of the islands are required to be consolidated and vulnerabilities are required to be eliminated by development of infrastructure, building military capabilities, and putting in place a robust mechanism to prevent illegal immigration and subversion of population. Boots on the ground on major islands: Islands cannot be guarded in the open sea by remote control. Presence of costal police and amphibious forces is imperative so that they are able to keep an eye on the dispersed island territories. The forces deployed to secure islands should be able to reach the desired locations using Air Sea and land routes before non-state actors or subversive elements are able to cause collateral damage. Apart from physical domination electronic surveillance of the islands have become a necessity. The deployment of forces should not be sacrosanct but based on periodic review of security threats. This review would also determine how much land forces, air and naval assets should be adequate to secure these islands. Maritime surveillance: Physical domination of sea is becoming most important to secure the islands. There is a need for comprehensive maritime surveillance by sea, air and electronically. Endeavour should be that someone should always be looking at these critical assets in the sea from ground, air, spaceand from the sea. Rapid reaction by air and sea: Rapid reaction by air and sea is vital. Best way to defend own territories is to have proactive approach. This would require certain elements of air, ground and naval assets to be in readiness profile to react to any contingency that may arise to the unoccupied islands and critical infrastructure. Development of islands as unsinkable aircraft carriers: These islands would become strategic assets if they are developed as comprehensive military bases that are able to project power and secure far seas. Enough has been written on it however, what. If the islands are holding lethal military capabilities it would have deterrence value but if they are without military wherewithal they become liability and vulnerable to encroachment. Control of movement of population: Illegal migration due to extreme poverty, harsh living conditions among South Asian nations and subversive designs of adversaries needs to be checked. There is a need to check antecedents of all citizens and deport the illegal immigrants. Population census in island territories is easy to monitor but authorities have to ensure that illegal immigrants deported and alsopunished for breaking the laws of. Infrastructure development and environmental balance: There is a need to maintain balance in environmental protection and infrastructure development. When it comes to development of critical strategic infrastructure environmental laws need to be relaxed. If a radar site has to be created it should not be prevented due to natural habitat of birds or animals. There are geographical constraints for creation of special infrastructure and thus environmental laws in such cases should be relaxed or waved. Darshana M. India must not create a mistake by deferring capability development. There is no scope to lose these islands by passive aggression through forced occupation of critical land mass in the high seas. If certain islands are required to be vacated of population for strategic and security reasons, government should be firm and do it for the nation. But that does not mean abandon the legitimate Indians their right to life. Such people should be relocated and their life support system reestablished after relocation. The fishing community and the residents of the coastal areas can act as the eyes and ears of the India security agencies in protecting the vast coastline of India against enemy evil designs. This Geopolitics Bureau compilation enumerates the measures taken by the security agencies in taking the coastal population into confidence in this task. Statewise Standard Operating Procedures SOPs for coordination among several agencies on coastal security issues have also been instituted. The existing surveillance system for maritime. The NC3I. Further, the National Automatic Identification System NAIS chain, comprising 87 stations is also functional and to enhance the presence of Coast Guard along the coastal areas, Coast Guard Stations have increased from 22 in to 42 in The National Committee on Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security NCSMCS , under the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary, is the highest body to monitor the progress in respect of coastal security initiatives including any shortfall and decides on measures to plug the gaps. Various measures were taken to strengthen coastal security like Navy's Joint Operations Centres as command and control hubs for coastal security at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair are fully operational. In addition to continuous patrolling by Navy and Coast Guard, modern technical measures have also been implemented for coastal surveillance, by way of a chain of 74 Automatic Identification System AIS receivers, for gapless cover along the entire coast, according to the navy. In , the National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network NC3I was set in National Capital Region to over-arching coastal security network collates data about all ships, dhows, fishing boats and all other vessels operating near our coast, from multiple technical sources including the AIS and radar chain. This Nodal Hub for the coastal security of our country, which has been conceptualised by the Indian Navy, is a major step in the establishment of a coastal security shield along the coast. In February , the Indian Coast Guard ICG was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters, including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Coast Guard is also responsible for overall coordination between Central and State agencies in matters relating to Coastal Security. This notification makes it compulsory for the boats to become identifiable at all times when they are sailing out at sea. In separate instructions, issued by the Ministry of Shipping, the government also wanted to ensure all fishing boats and vessels are registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, an umbrella law, as against the current practice of registering them separately under their respective state government enacted marine and fisheries regulation laws, based on their size and its opertions and use. The notifications were issued on June 24, , and it was then expected that these measures would bring about uniformity in the registration of all types of sea-faring vessels that are not large cargo vessels. The aim of these instructions were to ensure there was no doubt about the identity of the vessels when venturing into the sea and that there was a record of all the vessels that go out fishing in Indian waters. This also made it easy to know who owned the vessels in a centralised data system. This practice of keeping records through easily identifiable Automatic Identification System transponders, it was expected, would go a long way to prevent November Mumbaistyle terror attacks, where MV Kuber, an Indian fishing boat, was hijacked. The Pakistani terrorists, including Ajmal Amir Kasab who was arrested, had boarded MV Kuber in international waters off the coast of Gujarat after seizing it from the fishermen on the high seas. The terrorists easily slipped into Mumbai, by sailing close to the shore till around four nautical miles off Mumbai and then they got into motorised rubber dingies to reach the shore itself. The terrorists had killed the vessel's pilot, Amarsinh Solanki, before they hit the Mumbai shores. The notifications to ensure fishing vessels registration came about after it was felt among the Indian security apparatus that had MV Kuber been fitted with a sophisticated AIS transponder, under a centralised services system, it could have been easily detected. This would have been possible through a coded messaging system on the transponders for the pilots of the vessels to use and communicate with the security agencies in case of distress, such as hijacking or theft or robbery. Currently, only the bigger ships use such transponders and this facility is now available too smaller boats too. The transponders are devices that help sea-faring vessels to electronically exchange data, including their identity,. A fishing boat returning home: Such boats are often hijacked by smugglers and terrorists for illegal activities. Saab implemented the entire gamut of the project, which included installation, commissioning, training and support, along with their Indian partner, Elcome Marine Services. The project was signed by Saab and Elcome Marine Services combine in November and it was completed ahead of schedule during in Elcome has delivered the whole network, VSATs, leased lines, installation, project management, design, and installation. Elcome with support from Saab will be maintaining the system for till The NAIS network has suitable interfaces and these have already been incorporated for adding radar, cameras and other sensors. The system has already been integrated with existing radar and AIS in the country to provide a holistic overview of the coastal maritime domain. The NAIS network would thus play a vital role in meeting the long-term coastal surveillance needs of India. This project is one of the largest national AIS- based coastal surveillance systems ever to be deployed. Regular exercises are conducted to validate these SOPs. To revalidate the coastal security mechanism and bring awareness among the fishermen at sea, regular boarding operations are also being conducted to validate and check the credentials of the occupants of the vessels including their Identity Cards and Registration Documents. Based on intelligence inputs, Coastal Security operations are conducted by the ICG in coordination with other stakeholders. To develop their capacity, the ICG has been imparting regular training to Marine Police personnel since The training. The ICG contributes towards development and implementation of an effective security mechanism to combat seaborne threats. The security matrix of the ICG encompasses a host of operations and involves measures undertaken to address coastal security, offshore security, anti-terrorism, anti-piracy and port security. Nationwide, over such exercises have been conducted till date since , and this has strengthened coastal security markedly. The issue of ID cards to all fishermen with a single centralised database, registration of over 2 lakh fishing vessels operating off our coasts and equipping fishing boats with suitable equipment, to facilitate vessel identification and tracking are some of the other steps. Our fishing communities are adept mariners, whose cooperation is indispensable to our maritime security. This has been achieved by spreading awareness in these communities through coastal security awareness campaigns, conducted by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, in all coastal districts of the country. During these campaigns, fishermen have been strongly advised and warned not to cross the International Maritime Boundary as it is in the interest of their safety. Fishermen today own GPS receivers and are therefore fully aware of their positions at sea. During the implementation of Coastal Security Scheme Phase-I, various Coastal Security measures including the supply of interceptor boats were undertaken. The scheme has been implemented up to March Thus, several communities related and localised measures have been undertaken by both the Central and State governments over the last nine years, aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering apparatus for a gapless coastal security surveillance and actionable intelligence using human and technical sources. At least, 26 foreign nationals were among those killed by the terrorists. The terrorists, arrived in Mumbai on the night of November 26, after travelling from Karachi by sea. All of them, save one - Ajmal Kasab, - were eventually killed in counter-terror operations. Kasab, captured alive, was sentenced to death by a special anti-terror court in May , and hanged at the Yerawada central prison in Pune in November At least 18 Indian security personnel were killed in the attack. Among them were Mumbai Anti-Terrorist squad chief. It was Omble's supreme sacrifice that made the capture of Ajmal Kasab possible. On the night of November 26 near Girgaum Chowpatty, he grabbed the barrel of Kasab's assault rifle, and - when. Lashkar-e-Taiba operations commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi stands accused - along with six others - of abetment to murder, attempted murder, and planning and executing the Mumbai attack, in a case that has been drawn out for more than seven years in Pakistan. Ashok Kamte er accused, former LeT member Sufayan Zafar - who was arrested on charges that he financed the Mumbai attacks - was last year absolved by Pakistan's Federal Investigative Agency. The prosecution in the trial, on its part, said in October that India hadn't responded to Pakistan's request that it send 24 witnesses in the case to testify in court and that the case couldn't move forward until India did so. The seven persons accused of planning and executing the Mumbai attacks - including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi - in September challenged the legality of a Pakistani judicial commission which went to India in to probe the attacks. Lakhvi was released from prison on bail in Hafiz Saeed, founder of the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT and the chief of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa or JuD, a charity organisation considered to be a cover for the LeT , is another key mastermind of the attack. Pakistan, too, gave in to international pressure and banned the JuD, and placed Hafiz Saeed under house arrest for months, but ended up letting him go. He now lives as a free citizen in Lahore, and India's demands that he be brought to book have been met with the response that Pakistan doesn't have the evidence it needs to prosecute him. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a. However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Pakistan has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident. American citizen David Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot was hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into the consciousness of. This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus. The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations. The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels. Navy would control all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would be given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country. The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force. The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of a new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Management System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry. Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned. The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in shore support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned. Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the creation of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs. The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security. The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard. The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in conjunction with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies. This course is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, maintenance and boat handling. In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen that embody it. The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement. The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Ocean Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze. Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus. The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance completed both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICG , the Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea. As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation. Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's help, the maritime forces will surely be able to devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats. The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air assets in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look out at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a coherent operational picture. Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into a common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to observe suspicious objects in greater detail. In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously too. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations. This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including the coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others. The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised in , while the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean. The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean. The radar deployment in Seychelles comes as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. In , India grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti. Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit that India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Chat with x Hamster Live. Subscribe 2. Published by TheDegrader Download Download video in p quality 7. Leave a comment Comments Compilation of Massive Facials: More Girls Chat with x Hamster Live girls now! Comments 38 Spam comments 0. Please log in or register to post comments. If spammers comment on your content, only you can see and manage such comments Delete all. Do you see how fine those women are? He really had no choice but to let that much out everytime..

The scheme has been implemented up to March Thus, several communities related and localised measures have been undertaken by both the Central and State governments over the last nine years, aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering apparatus for a gapless coastal security surveillance and actionable intelligence using human and technical sources.

At least, 26 foreign nationals were among those killed by the terrorists. The terrorists, arrived in Mumbai on the night of November 26, after travelling from Karachi by sea. All of them, save one - Ajmal Kasab, - were eventually killed in counter-terror operations. Kasab, captured alive, was sentenced to death by a special anti-terror court in Mayand hanged at the Yerawada central prison in Pune in November At least 18 Indian security personnel were killed in the attack.

Among them were Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Winter village fish market chief.

It was Omble's supreme sacrifice that made the capture of Ajmal Kasab possible. On the night of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb 26 near Girgaum Chowpatty, he grabbed the barrel of Kasab's assault rifle, and - when.

Lashkar-e-Taiba operations commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi stands accused - along with six others - of abetment to murder, attempted murder, and planning and executing the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb attack, in a case that has been drawn out for more than seven years in Pakistan. Ashok Kamte er accused, former LeT member Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Zafar - who was arrested on charges that he financed the Mumbai attacks - was last year absolved by Pakistan's Federal Investigative Agency.

The prosecution in the trial, on its part, said in October that India hadn't responded to Pakistan's request that it send 24 witnesses in the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to testify in court and that the case couldn't move forward until India did so. The seven persons accused of planning and executing the Mumbai attacks - including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi - in September challenged the legality of a Pakistani judicial commission which went to India in to probe the attacks.

Lakhvi was released from prison on bail in Hafiz Saeed, founder of the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT and the chief of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa or JuD, a charity organisation considered to be a cover for the LeTis another key mastermind of the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb. Pakistan, too, gave in to international pressure and banned the JuD, and placed Hafiz Saeed under house arrest for months, but ended up letting him go.

He now lives as a free citizen in Lahore, and India's demands that he be brought to book have been met with the response that Pakistan doesn't have the evidence it needs to prosecute him. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a.

However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident.

American citizen New naked live woman Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb consciousness of.

This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus.

The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations.

The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels.

Navy would Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline.

With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country.

The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force.

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The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry.

Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned.

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The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned.

Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the continue reading of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs.

The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security.

Rajasthani Sexy Watch Video Mp3hot Video. India must not create a mistake by deferring capability development. There is no scope to lose these islands by passive aggression through forced occupation of critical land mass in the high seas. If certain islands are required to be vacated of population for strategic and security reasons, government should be firm and do it for the nation. But that does not mean abandon the legitimate Indians their right to life. Such people should be relocated and their life support system reestablished after relocation. The fishing community and the residents of the coastal areas can act as the eyes and ears of the India security agencies in protecting the vast coastline of India against enemy evil designs. This Geopolitics Bureau compilation enumerates the measures taken by the security agencies in taking the coastal population into confidence in this task. Statewise Standard Operating Procedures SOPs for coordination among several agencies on coastal security issues have also been instituted. The existing surveillance system for maritime. The NC3I. Further, the National Automatic Identification System NAIS chain, comprising 87 stations is also functional and to enhance the presence of Coast Guard along the coastal areas, Coast Guard Stations have increased from 22 in to 42 in The National Committee on Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security NCSMCS , under the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary, is the highest body to monitor the progress in respect of coastal security initiatives including any shortfall and decides on measures to plug the gaps. Various measures were taken to strengthen coastal security like Navy's Joint Operations Centres as command and control hubs for coastal security at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair are fully operational. In addition to continuous patrolling by Navy and Coast Guard, modern technical measures have also been implemented for coastal surveillance, by way of a chain of 74 Automatic Identification System AIS receivers, for gapless cover along the entire coast, according to the navy. In , the National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network NC3I was set in National Capital Region to over-arching coastal security network collates data about all ships, dhows, fishing boats and all other vessels operating near our coast, from multiple technical sources including the AIS and radar chain. This Nodal Hub for the coastal security of our country, which has been conceptualised by the Indian Navy, is a major step in the establishment of a coastal security shield along the coast. In February , the Indian Coast Guard ICG was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters, including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Coast Guard is also responsible for overall coordination between Central and State agencies in matters relating to Coastal Security. This notification makes it compulsory for the boats to become identifiable at all times when they are sailing out at sea. In separate instructions, issued by the Ministry of Shipping, the government also wanted to ensure all fishing boats and vessels are registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, an umbrella law, as against the current practice of registering them separately under their respective state government enacted marine and fisheries regulation laws, based on their size and its opertions and use. The notifications were issued on June 24, , and it was then expected that these measures would bring about uniformity in the registration of all types of sea-faring vessels that are not large cargo vessels. The aim of these instructions were to ensure there was no doubt about the identity of the vessels when venturing into the sea and that there was a record of all the vessels that go out fishing in Indian waters. This also made it easy to know who owned the vessels in a centralised data system. This practice of keeping records through easily identifiable Automatic Identification System transponders, it was expected, would go a long way to prevent November Mumbaistyle terror attacks, where MV Kuber, an Indian fishing boat, was hijacked. The Pakistani terrorists, including Ajmal Amir Kasab who was arrested, had boarded MV Kuber in international waters off the coast of Gujarat after seizing it from the fishermen on the high seas. The terrorists easily slipped into Mumbai, by sailing close to the shore till around four nautical miles off Mumbai and then they got into motorised rubber dingies to reach the shore itself. The terrorists had killed the vessel's pilot, Amarsinh Solanki, before they hit the Mumbai shores. The notifications to ensure fishing vessels registration came about after it was felt among the Indian security apparatus that had MV Kuber been fitted with a sophisticated AIS transponder, under a centralised services system, it could have been easily detected. This would have been possible through a coded messaging system on the transponders for the pilots of the vessels to use and communicate with the security agencies in case of distress, such as hijacking or theft or robbery. Currently, only the bigger ships use such transponders and this facility is now available too smaller boats too. The transponders are devices that help sea-faring vessels to electronically exchange data, including their identity,. A fishing boat returning home: Such boats are often hijacked by smugglers and terrorists for illegal activities. Saab implemented the entire gamut of the project, which included installation, commissioning, training and support, along with their Indian partner, Elcome Marine Services. The project was signed by Saab and Elcome Marine Services combine in November and it was completed ahead of schedule during in Elcome has delivered the whole network, VSATs, leased lines, installation, project management, design, and installation. Elcome with support from Saab will be maintaining the system for till The NAIS network has suitable interfaces and these have already been incorporated for adding radar, cameras and other sensors. The system has already been integrated with existing radar and AIS in the country to provide a holistic overview of the coastal maritime domain. The NAIS network would thus play a vital role in meeting the long-term coastal surveillance needs of India. This project is one of the largest national AIS- based coastal surveillance systems ever to be deployed. Regular exercises are conducted to validate these SOPs. To revalidate the coastal security mechanism and bring awareness among the fishermen at sea, regular boarding operations are also being conducted to validate and check the credentials of the occupants of the vessels including their Identity Cards and Registration Documents. Based on intelligence inputs, Coastal Security operations are conducted by the ICG in coordination with other stakeholders. To develop their capacity, the ICG has been imparting regular training to Marine Police personnel since The training. The ICG contributes towards development and implementation of an effective security mechanism to combat seaborne threats. The security matrix of the ICG encompasses a host of operations and involves measures undertaken to address coastal security, offshore security, anti-terrorism, anti-piracy and port security. Nationwide, over such exercises have been conducted till date since , and this has strengthened coastal security markedly. The issue of ID cards to all fishermen with a single centralised database, registration of over 2 lakh fishing vessels operating off our coasts and equipping fishing boats with suitable equipment, to facilitate vessel identification and tracking are some of the other steps. Our fishing communities are adept mariners, whose cooperation is indispensable to our maritime security. This has been achieved by spreading awareness in these communities through coastal security awareness campaigns, conducted by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, in all coastal districts of the country. During these campaigns, fishermen have been strongly advised and warned not to cross the International Maritime Boundary as it is in the interest of their safety. Fishermen today own GPS receivers and are therefore fully aware of their positions at sea. During the implementation of Coastal Security Scheme Phase-I, various Coastal Security measures including the supply of interceptor boats were undertaken. The scheme has been implemented up to March Thus, several communities related and localised measures have been undertaken by both the Central and State governments over the last nine years, aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering apparatus for a gapless coastal security surveillance and actionable intelligence using human and technical sources. At least, 26 foreign nationals were among those killed by the terrorists. The terrorists, arrived in Mumbai on the night of November 26, after travelling from Karachi by sea. All of them, save one - Ajmal Kasab, - were eventually killed in counter-terror operations. Kasab, captured alive, was sentenced to death by a special anti-terror court in May , and hanged at the Yerawada central prison in Pune in November At least 18 Indian security personnel were killed in the attack. Among them were Mumbai Anti-Terrorist squad chief. It was Omble's supreme sacrifice that made the capture of Ajmal Kasab possible. On the night of November 26 near Girgaum Chowpatty, he grabbed the barrel of Kasab's assault rifle, and - when. Lashkar-e-Taiba operations commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi stands accused - along with six others - of abetment to murder, attempted murder, and planning and executing the Mumbai attack, in a case that has been drawn out for more than seven years in Pakistan. Ashok Kamte er accused, former LeT member Sufayan Zafar - who was arrested on charges that he financed the Mumbai attacks - was last year absolved by Pakistan's Federal Investigative Agency. The prosecution in the trial, on its part, said in October that India hadn't responded to Pakistan's request that it send 24 witnesses in the case to testify in court and that the case couldn't move forward until India did so. The seven persons accused of planning and executing the Mumbai attacks - including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi - in September challenged the legality of a Pakistani judicial commission which went to India in to probe the attacks. Lakhvi was released from prison on bail in Hafiz Saeed, founder of the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT and the chief of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa or JuD, a charity organisation considered to be a cover for the LeT , is another key mastermind of the attack. Pakistan, too, gave in to international pressure and banned the JuD, and placed Hafiz Saeed under house arrest for months, but ended up letting him go. He now lives as a free citizen in Lahore, and India's demands that he be brought to book have been met with the response that Pakistan doesn't have the evidence it needs to prosecute him. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a. However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Pakistan has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident. American citizen David Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot was hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into the consciousness of. This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus. The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations. The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels. Navy would control all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would be given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country. The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force. The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of a new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Management System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry. Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned. The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in shore support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned. Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the creation of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs. The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security. The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard. The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in conjunction with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies. This course is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, maintenance and boat handling. In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen that embody it. The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement. The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Ocean Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze. Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus. The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance completed both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICG , the Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea. As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation. Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's help, the maritime forces will surely be able to devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats. The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air assets in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look out at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a coherent operational picture. Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into a common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to observe suspicious objects in greater detail. In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously too. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations. This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including the coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others. The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised in , while the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean. The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean. The radar deployment in Seychelles comes as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. In , India grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti. Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit that India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Approximately hours of flight testing will be required to complete these tests. Should the IAF so desire, the Hawk-i can be configured to carry air-to-air missiles, precision munitions, rockets and bombs. Production HTT aircraft will be available at a later stage with an armed variant fitted with unguided rockets, iron bombs and a gun pod. The major issues with the HJT were stall related problems which were overcome, but Spin trials could not be completed and production of the Sitara has since been stopped since the many issues plaguing the type are resolved. The Kiran has proved tough, robust and reliable and must be considered a successful design. HAL has also extended the life of Kiran aircraft and the aircraft will now be phased out from service in The Kiran Mk-I has a life of hrs. The induction of the Hawk AJT was. Additional Hawk Mks are also said to be in consideration, though no formal announcement of this requirement has been made till date. The Hawk-i is an indigenous effort by HAL to modernise the Hawk Mk by upgrading the cockpit, displays, avionics, mission computer, head-up display HUD and replacing equipment facing obsolescence. Hawk-i is basically an avionics upgrade and no structural upgrades have been done, the avionics upgrade on the aircraft is similar to what was shown at Aero India. The Hawk-i will be able to carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground weapons and it will have self-defence capabilities through Electronic Warfare EW systems, digital map generator. Other additions are a new dual hot stand-by mission computer. The HTT is an indigenously developed basic trainer aircraft and could enter production next year. India had no other source for procuring weaponry. However, the breakup of the Soviet Union caught India unprepared. It had to seek alternate sources and soon realised that procurement of new weaponry in an environment of open multi-vendor competition is a long, convoluted and arduous process. A need was felt to evolve a detailed and well-structured procedure to facilitate decision making and ensure expeditious procurements. However, it suffered from some major deficiencies, which affected its implementation. Soon thereafter, a comprehensive procurement procedure DPP was put into effect on December It has since been revised eight times and the current version is DPP The defence procedure mandates that all procurements should be carried out in an open, transparent and free competitive environment with maximum number of vendors participating in the bidding process. The procedure repeatedly stresses the importance of generating maximum competition. Unfortunately, despite the fact that DPP has been in operation for the last 15 years, it has failed to deliver, sporadic euphoria notwithstanding. India has not been able to carry out any major defence procurement in a competitive environment without ensuing controversies. Every inked deal has been on single-vendor government-togovernment basis, showing total failure of the much-vaunted procurement procedure. Two issues get flagged. Although a public policy should be dynamic and interactive in nature, it should provide reasonable continuity. Biennial reviews of DPP create an environment of uncertainty and unpredictability. Entrepreneurs get deterred by frequent changes in various provisions. The second issue is about the desirability of excessive dependence on government-to-government deals to meet critical requirements. DPP lacks focus, coherence and rationality. Worse, it has been encumbered with many irrelevant provisions. Unfortunately, it does not possess the necessary acumen, expertise and domain knowledge. It is only in India that drafting of the procedure that governs defence procurements worth billions of dollars is assigned to functionaries who possess no knowledge of economics, financial management and military systems. No wonder that some provisions of the procedure defy logic and are in fact detrimental to Indian interests. The whole procurement regime is characterised by bureaucratic stranglehold. Very limited powers have been delegated to the services. Bureaucrats call all the shots. To start with, all procurement proposals are submitted to the Defence Acquisition Council or the Defence Procurement Board for approval. Both function under MoD. The Acquisition Wing of MoD is the executive arm and is again headed by a bureaucrat. Even the list of vendors who can be called for field trials is approved by MoD. Furthermore, MoD retains the authority to accept Staff Evaluation Report that shortlists technically successful vendors. In other words, bureaucrats of MoD have made the whole system totally captive to their dictates. Thereafter, there is no dialogue between the two. No market survey is ever carried out to provide feedback to SHQ as regards cost-performance relationship of equipment in the world market. SHQ is never asked to reconsider some parameters that may result in huge savings. Most shockingly, after field trials and staff appraisal, SHQ cannot prioritise its selection. All equipment that meet SQR are considered at par. It is for MoD to select the cheapest out of them. In the process, the country suffers as it misses an opportunity to buy the most advanced equipment available in the market with minimal cost accretion. Indian offset policy has huge impact on all major procurements. Since its introduction in , it has undergone many major revisions. The whole policy has turned out to be an amateurish and disjointed effort. It contains many unintelligible and indefinite provisions. Lack of effective monitoring mechanism of offset programmes is another area of concern. It will not be incorrect to state that the offset policy has proved to be a big encumbrance, without. Defence procurements in India are handled by functionaries drawn from the services, bureaucracy and Defence Finance. They are not selected for any special educational qualification or demonstrated capability or displayed flair. They are assigned acquisition functions in routine. Most have no prior experience of handling military hardware and are unable to comprehend intricacies of competing technologies and their inter se evaluation. Worst, no training is imparted to them to prepare them for such critical appointments. This is the single most important reason for the failure of DPP to deliver. After all, a policy is as good as the people who implement it. Government-to-government deals with Russia continue to follow the same arrangement as with the erstwhile Soviet Union. Helicopter and Mi Helicopter. Though a comparatively late entrant, Israel has rapidly established itself as a major supplier. A number of joint development projects are also under implementation with the government owned companies. DCNS is a government owned company and the deal was vigorously promoted by the French leadership, akin to government-to-government trade. Recent purchase of 36 Rafale fighter aircraft from the French government is considered to be a landmark deal. Government-to-government route does have many major benefits. Most importantly, there are no middlemen. The price is generally reasonable as the seller government negotiates the price with the manufacturer. India is saved considerable time, effort and expenditure. With sovereign guarantees, quality, performance parameters and after sales support are assured. India gets complex weapon systems fully integrated and configured. Hence, this route is ideal in respect of the latest systems, which no other nation possesses or is ready to offer. It implies that the equipment should undisputedly be the best available and there should be no need to carry out comparative trials. On the other hand, government-. All countries develop defence equipment keeping in mind their capabilities, doctrine and envisaged operational exploitation. It is not feasible for any seller to modify an existing weapon system to suit Indian parameters — both on account of expediency and economic considerations. If India wants any equipment, it has to accept it as it exists. Some of y'all might remember seeing Ygor's work on that "Destruidores Latina" comp from awhile back. This time around, the spotlight is on him and he does not disappoint. Enjoy it or else! Chat with x Hamster Live girls now! Ads by TrafficStars. To watch the video you need to enable Javascript in your browser. Chat with x Hamster Live. Subscribe 2. Published by TheDegrader Download Download video in p quality 7. Leave a comment Comments Compilation of Massive Facials:.

The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard.

The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies.

This here is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb and boat handling.

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In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb embody it.

The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement.

The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Visit web page Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze.

Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus.

The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICGthe Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea.

As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation.

Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, the maritime forces will surely be able Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats.

The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb operational picture.

Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into more info common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb suspicious objects in greater detail.

In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously go here. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations.

This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others.

The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised inwhile the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean.

The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean.

The radar deployment in Seychelles Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. InIndia grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti.

Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb

Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said.

Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard.

To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline.

With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along click to see more Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats.

However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned.

This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In MarchIndian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went article source a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting.

He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region.

The more info surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this click to see more. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region?

Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region.

But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China.

India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security read more the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region.

The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region.

Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually.

One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Article source and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor.

The Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations.

Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships.

India has plans to increase the number of warships, which Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here.

Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got this web page Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing.

But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb serving the Indian military well.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phasesand The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved.

In DecemberIndia's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity.

The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region.

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The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies.

It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea.

With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ.

Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain.

At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area.

For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region.

As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air.

However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management.

Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming article source all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system.

While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb the Army is that, most of spares.

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The other option of restarting production is an expensive Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey visit web page to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability.

According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem.

As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance.

The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitudein addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs.

The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially.

The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb 1. From ranges of 1.

A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability.

Rijpe sex Watch Video Nude seduction. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Approximately hours of flight testing will be required to complete these tests. Should the IAF so desire, the Hawk-i can be configured to carry air-to-air missiles, precision munitions, rockets and bombs. Production HTT aircraft will be available at a later stage with an armed variant fitted with unguided rockets, iron bombs and a gun pod. The major issues with the HJT were stall related problems which were overcome, but Spin trials could not be completed and production of the Sitara has since been stopped since the many issues plaguing the type are resolved. The Kiran has proved tough, robust and reliable and must be considered a successful design. HAL has also extended the life of Kiran aircraft and the aircraft will now be phased out from service in The Kiran Mk-I has a life of hrs. The induction of the Hawk AJT was. Additional Hawk Mks are also said to be in consideration, though no formal announcement of this requirement has been made till date. The Hawk-i is an indigenous effort by HAL to modernise the Hawk Mk by upgrading the cockpit, displays, avionics, mission computer, head-up display HUD and replacing equipment facing obsolescence. Hawk-i is basically an avionics upgrade and no structural upgrades have been done, the avionics upgrade on the aircraft is similar to what was shown at Aero India. The Hawk-i will be able to carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground weapons and it will have self-defence capabilities through Electronic Warfare EW systems, digital map generator. Other additions are a new dual hot stand-by mission computer. The HTT is an indigenously developed basic trainer aircraft and could enter production next year. India had no other source for procuring weaponry. However, the breakup of the Soviet Union caught India unprepared. It had to seek alternate sources and soon realised that procurement of new weaponry in an environment of open multi-vendor competition is a long, convoluted and arduous process. A need was felt to evolve a detailed and well-structured procedure to facilitate decision making and ensure expeditious procurements. However, it suffered from some major deficiencies, which affected its implementation. Soon thereafter, a comprehensive procurement procedure DPP was put into effect on December It has since been revised eight times and the current version is DPP The defence procedure mandates that all procurements should be carried out in an open, transparent and free competitive environment with maximum number of vendors participating in the bidding process. The procedure repeatedly stresses the importance of generating maximum competition. Unfortunately, despite the fact that DPP has been in operation for the last 15 years, it has failed to deliver, sporadic euphoria notwithstanding. India has not been able to carry out any major defence procurement in a competitive environment without ensuing controversies. Every inked deal has been on single-vendor government-togovernment basis, showing total failure of the much-vaunted procurement procedure. Two issues get flagged. Although a public policy should be dynamic and interactive in nature, it should provide reasonable continuity. Biennial reviews of DPP create an environment of uncertainty and unpredictability. Entrepreneurs get deterred by frequent changes in various provisions. The second issue is about the desirability of excessive dependence on government-to-government deals to meet critical requirements. DPP lacks focus, coherence and rationality. Worse, it has been encumbered with many irrelevant provisions. Unfortunately, it does not possess the necessary acumen, expertise and domain knowledge. It is only in India that drafting of the procedure that governs defence procurements worth billions of dollars is assigned to functionaries who possess no knowledge of economics, financial management and military systems. No wonder that some provisions of the procedure defy logic and are in fact detrimental to Indian interests. The whole procurement regime is characterised by bureaucratic stranglehold. Very limited powers have been delegated to the services. Bureaucrats call all the shots. To start with, all procurement proposals are submitted to the Defence Acquisition Council or the Defence Procurement Board for approval. Both function under MoD. The Acquisition Wing of MoD is the executive arm and is again headed by a bureaucrat. Even the list of vendors who can be called for field trials is approved by MoD. Furthermore, MoD retains the authority to accept Staff Evaluation Report that shortlists technically successful vendors. In other words, bureaucrats of MoD have made the whole system totally captive to their dictates. Thereafter, there is no dialogue between the two. No market survey is ever carried out to provide feedback to SHQ as regards cost-performance relationship of equipment in the world market. SHQ is never asked to reconsider some parameters that may result in huge savings. Most shockingly, after field trials and staff appraisal, SHQ cannot prioritise its selection. All equipment that meet SQR are considered at par. It is for MoD to select the cheapest out of them. In the process, the country suffers as it misses an opportunity to buy the most advanced equipment available in the market with minimal cost accretion. Indian offset policy has huge impact on all major procurements. Since its introduction in , it has undergone many major revisions. The whole policy has turned out to be an amateurish and disjointed effort. It contains many unintelligible and indefinite provisions. Lack of effective monitoring mechanism of offset programmes is another area of concern. It will not be incorrect to state that the offset policy has proved to be a big encumbrance, without. Defence procurements in India are handled by functionaries drawn from the services, bureaucracy and Defence Finance. They are not selected for any special educational qualification or demonstrated capability or displayed flair. They are assigned acquisition functions in routine. Most have no prior experience of handling military hardware and are unable to comprehend intricacies of competing technologies and their inter se evaluation. Worst, no training is imparted to them to prepare them for such critical appointments. This is the single most important reason for the failure of DPP to deliver. After all, a policy is as good as the people who implement it. Government-to-government deals with Russia continue to follow the same arrangement as with the erstwhile Soviet Union. Helicopter and Mi Helicopter. Though a comparatively late entrant, Israel has rapidly established itself as a major supplier. A number of joint development projects are also under implementation with the government owned companies. DCNS is a government owned company and the deal was vigorously promoted by the French leadership, akin to government-to-government trade. Recent purchase of 36 Rafale fighter aircraft from the French government is considered to be a landmark deal. Government-to-government route does have many major benefits. Most importantly, there are no middlemen. The price is generally reasonable as the seller government negotiates the price with the manufacturer. India is saved considerable time, effort and expenditure. With sovereign guarantees, quality, performance parameters and after sales support are assured. India gets complex weapon systems fully integrated and configured. Hence, this route is ideal in respect of the latest systems, which no other nation possesses or is ready to offer. It implies that the equipment should undisputedly be the best available and there should be no need to carry out comparative trials. On the other hand, government-. All countries develop defence equipment keeping in mind their capabilities, doctrine and envisaged operational exploitation. It is not feasible for any seller to modify an existing weapon system to suit Indian parameters — both on account of expediency and economic considerations. If India wants any equipment, it has to accept it as it exists. In a multi-vendor environment, India can ask all vendors to submit techno-commercial proposals as per the parameters evolved by it to suit its operational needs. On the other hand, every governmentto-government deal violates the said principle. It must nonetheless be admitted here that even DPP recognises the fact that the standard procedure cannot be followed in cases where procurements are required to be done from friendly foreign countries on a single vendor basis on mutually agreed terms between the two governments. Whereas the desirability of procuring equipment in an open and competitive environment cannot be disputed, government-to-government deals prove beneficial for complex hi-tech defence systems. Such deals are invariably based on politico-military decisions. These include accruing geo-strategic advantages; imperatives of strategic partnerships; and major diplomatic, political, economic, technological and military benefits. In other words, governmentto-government deals promote national foreign policy objectives and generally form a part of larger packages to cement ties between the two countries. Government-to-government route precludes wider competition and trials. Thus, this route should be adopted after due diligence and not as a matter of routine convenience. It should normally be adopted to procure cutting-edge equipment that is unavailable from any alternate source. Absence of middlemen is another factor of overriding consideration. Allegations of corruption and slush money have been plaguing every deal concluded with business houses. As Franklin D. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something. A complete change-over is overdue. Minor modifications and cosmetic changes mean little and result only in selfillusion and complacency. Governmentto-government route should be an exception rather than the rule. India must curb its penchant for resorting to this route to circumvent convolutions of DPP. There is no substitute for a wellevolved procurement procedure. The author is a retired Major General. With a formal Request for Proposal RFP expected to be issued next year, it would take a minimum of three to five years for a formal contract to be awarded if past procurements are any indicator. A contract award by and entry of the first helicopters by would be the ideal scenario. To bolster its existing fleet of obsolete fleet of utility helicopters, the Navy had placed an order with HAL for eight Chetak helicopters and two spare engines in August this year. Of the 32 helicopters to be built by HAL, 16 each would be shared by both the services. The Ministry of Defence MoD. It is expected that the pintle-mounted machine guns will be installed on air force Mi V5 helicopters or the Dhruv. The 7. The procurement process is to start next year and it is planned to commence fitment of the machine guns onto the helicopters with months of the contract signature. The Coast Guard has also been another beneficiary of the improved procurement climate, having taken delivery of six new interceptor boats over the last few months and also adding new offshore patrol vessels OPVs. In addition to the latest DAC approval for procurement. The towed array sonar ACTAS operates in the low-frequency range and permits surveillance of the sea space at ranges in excess of 60 kilometers, depending on the sound propagation conditions of the water. ACTAS provides warships with an exceptional operational range advantage over both the operational range of radars and weapons systems employed by submarines. The pace of defence procurement has picked up and must continue to allow the armed forces to recapitalise their assets, that have drawn down due to retirement of platforms and obsolescence. If tiny Israel with its back to the sea can repeatedly defeat much larger Arab countries in multi-front wars over the past 70 years, India with virtually unlimited resources should at the very least achieve a Mexican standoff in a. It was superior training, tactics, morale and equipment that ensured a Jewish victory. The two-front threat is not new. In the War, the. Indian Army moved divisions from the mountains to the Lahore front only after it was convinced that the remaining forces could undertake a holding operation if the Chinese opened a second front. Again, in the War, the Indian Army waited until the Himalayan passes were snowed under — effectively blocking out the PLA — before launching its blitzkrieg into Pakistan. How realistic is the two-front scenario? Opium War. Considering how often the military leadership has been right — and how often the politicians have blundered — it would be ill-advised to disregard the statements by both the army and air force chiefs that India must be prepared for a worst case scenario. On September 6, Army Chief General Bipin Rawat said the country must be prepared for a potential twofront war with China and Pakistan as reconciliation with the latter looked bleak. It has come to the point that Pakistani commentators are describing. If we characterise Pakistan-China militaryto-military relations, the three key terms are all-weather brotherhood, high-level mutual assistance and support and deep-rooted strategic mutual trust. This is because the Chinese and Pakistani world views are uncannily similar. The Chinese elites want to restore the country to the glory days of the Middle Kingdom, implying that the country occupies a central position in the world, and therefore China is superior to all other nations. Similarly, many Pakistanis dream of restoring the Mughal Empire over the Indian subcontinent. Considering such deep-rooted hostility from two nuclear armed adversaries, India should be in a state of constant battle readiness. The government should be prepared to spend at least 5 per cent of its GDP on defence. For, it is better to spend 5 per cent on defending all that is dear to us than to lose 50 per cent of it in war. Sparta, the warlike Greek state, was in a perpetual state of war readiness. On several occasions Greece was saved from defeat because, unlike the other city states, Spartans trained for war days of the year. A few months after the victory, the late K Subrahmanyam wrote: It is obvious that the latter can only. Consequently, our force requirements must be planned to achieve this aim. One, launch a multipronged blitzkrieg into Pakistan and capture bite-size km chunks of territory. This will ensure a quick capitulation without setting off fears in Islamabad that India wants to break it up like in Only if Islamabad wants, will the war escalate to the nuclear stage. Quick reaction mountain divisions should be able to form an impenetrable wall that acts as a meat grinder for the invading forces. This might come as news to many. As the chief commander of the Eastern Army, Jacob had to deal with two IAF command headquarters — one in Shillong and the other hundreds of kilometres away in Allahabad — which posed coordination problems for the army. Because Maneckshaw refused to speak to Lall, Jacob had to meet the Air Chief Marshal in person in order to sort out the issue. Such decision making paralysis could prove suicidal in a future highintensity war that may be fought in a nuclear environment. With both China and Pakistan aiming for fourth generation warfare capability, operational synergy among the three forces must be at the heart of strategic planning. India must also transform from having a military based on quantity to a military based on quality. The creation of a new South-Western Army Command is an indication that the army has initiated the process of acquiring a greater offensive punch along the entire western front with Pakistan. Once perfected, Cold Start will allow India to mobilise fast and strike hard. India also has to strategically counter the military asymmetry with China in the eastern sector. The vast network of roads and railways developed by China in Tibet, which borders India from eastern Ladakh to Arunachal Pradesh, allows the PLA to easily mobilise forces quickly, thereby retaining the flexibility to field a balanced fighting force at a number of places. In contrast, border roads in India continue to be neglected and survey work for railway lines in the critical Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh started only this year. The equally important Bilaspur-ManaliLeh corridor is under way but it is in the slow lane. The Finance Ministry is. While there is no need for Cold Start warfare in the Himalayas, the army must be able to amass forces quickly while the IAF strikes at advancing Chinese columns. Asymmetric warfare or asymmetric engagement is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. This is best illustrated by easily quantifiable air power. For instance, China can throw at least 21 fighter squadrons against India, from its eight airbases in Tibet and other airfields to their north. Even more Chinese fighters can join forces if they are able to overfly Myanmar. Similarly, Pakistan can deploy as many as 25 fighter squadrons. India currently has fighter squadrons. Considering such asymmetry, the country will have to rely on innovation rather than numbers. The following strategies will help India in the event of a joint ChinaPakistan attack. Taking lessons from the Gulf War, India became the first country outside the two superpowers to go in for cruise missiles in a big way. More importantly, it is the only country that has gone in for supersonic cruise missiles, raising several regiments of the BrahMos. The sudden and stealthy impact of missiles can be highly demoralising to the enemy, eroding his resolve. When waves of BrahMos missiles start thudding into their defences, tanks, air bases, ships, and command and communication centres, it will hasten capitulation. Against Pakistan, the targets are obvious. The supersonic Brahmos armed with a conventional warhead can theoretically penetrate hardened command, control and communication centres. India has deployed the BrahMos Block III against China, and this version has "trajectory manoeuvre and steep-dive capabilities" for mountain warfare. India must have enough firepower to cause considerable damage to Chinese military assets in the Western Theatre Command Tibet , forcing the PLA to replenish its forces from the Han heartland more than km away. These supply lines can then be re-targeted by Indian Sukhois. Cruise missiles offer war planners a tantalising option compared with piloted jet fighters because you have. India has five BrahMos regiments — each made up of four launch vehicles and 90 missiles. The supersonic strike option is probably the most inspired decision the Indian military and political leadership has taken in the past three decades. Air power will play a critical role against both China and Pakistan as it is the IAF — plus anti-aircraft artillery — that will have to absorb the initial wave of attacks. It could take until — when all 36 Rafales, MMRCA fighters and indigenous Tejas warplanes are inducted — before India finally has the optimum number of 45 squadrons which the IAF has been requesting since the s! He mentions: And given Pakistan's size, each target there is ten times as valuable as an equivalent target in India. As far as Pakistani attack capability, it can only be minuscule. Pakistani air power will have an extremely difficult time protecting Pakistan skies. The token numbers available for attack can, if at all, get to targets only in western India. A key role will be played by a little known wing of the Indian military — a mini air force which is most likely under the Strategic Forces Command SFC. The SFC has asked for two squadrons of nuclear capable strike aircraft to be used conjointly with land-based and submarine launched ballistic missiles. This batch of Sukhois will also have hardened electronic circuitry to shield them from the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear blast. A tactical nuclear warhead on an air-launched BrahMos-A fired. It is a lot easier for India to destroy Pakistani war fighting capability because not only is Pakistan relatively smaller but it has also concentrated its defences in one province, Punjab. They allow you to delay the use of your doomsday weapon — the ballistic missile. Because nuclear armed rockets are used only as a weapon of last resort, they cannot really be deployed at will. Plus, once released they cannot be recalled, and if shot down are not easily replaced. Fighter aircraft, on the other hand, can perform repeated sorties and be vectored and re-directed as they travel. In July , an Indian amphibious assault vessel on a friendly visit to Vietnam was contacted 45 nautical miles from the Vietnamese coast by the PLA Navy, which warned that Indian Navy ship was entering Chinese waters. However, the ship continued on its journey as scheduled. The very mention of an Indian Pacific Fleet will set off the alarm bells in Beijing, but it would be the best way to show that two can play the game. A Pacific Fleet — able to rest and fuel in Japan or Vietnam — will allow India to target the Chinese from the east for the first time. Great nations — or nations that hope to be great — have to launch missions that signal the seriousness of their intent. Self-belief is a huge factor in winning wars. Unlike many sections of the leftist media and liberals who continue to belittle the ability of the armed forces, thankfully Indian soldiers do not subscribe to such defeatist views. People forget that India has defeated Pakistan not once but in four successive wars. Against its larger adversary, the results have been mixed. In , India turned the tables on China at Cho La where a massive PLA force was battered into humiliation and forced to withdraw three kilometres from the border. Let it be said in the beginning that neither China nor India will want the border to become active — implying exchange of small arms fire — leave alone a conflict. Both nations are mature enough to resolve issues that arise out of our unsettled borders. That said, both the armies would remain ever vigilant and at loggerhead at times, to preserve and uphold the sovereignty. Doklam did not come about suddenly in Once Xi Jinping established his authority and consolidated his power by , the Chinese posture changed from the persuasive to the aggressive and assertive. In the South China Sea, it has progressively taken control of it through coercive, assertive and physical means since It even disagreed on a ruling. The regional and the international response had been muted due to the multinational claims on the region, the Chinese economic and diplomatic coercion, and an unenthusiastic US. With its chiefly economic clout backed by modernised armed forces and state controlled media propaganda, China has been on to assertive diplomacy especially in Asia. Nearer home, on the Sino-Indian border, it flexed its muscles in the Eastern Ladakh Sector, an area where we were marginally tactically at a disadvantage; there was a three-week stand-off in Burtse in April ; Chumar, again in Eastern Ladakh followed in September Even as the focus was on the Ladakh region, Western Bhutan too which essentially borders the Chumbi Valley and includes the Doklam area witnessed a distinct change of status quo a map reference to that area is important for a clearer understanding of the issues. More significantly, after a long gap, Chinese patrols went right up to the Jampheri Ridge Line in And in , they increased the frequency as well as behaved in a coercive and aggressive manner when confronted by the Bhutanese Army. It is the extension of this to the Jampheri ridge that has been contested. The Chinese local military commanders might have misinterpreted our physical non-interference to the extended reach of patrolling in the last couple of years. While China has no direct diplomatic relations with Bhutan, both the nations have a mechanism to discuss the border disputes, including a joint survey. Bhutan has already given up some territory in the Kula Kangri area on their Northern border with China. However, the Chinese accuse India of not letting Bhutan settle the border dispute. Consequent upon relocation of the Tri-junction point to Gymochen further down south, China now claims additional land, as indicated above. The intent to build a road in this area at this phase of relations must have been to test our resolve, drive a wedge in our relations with Bhutan and coerce Bhutan by a threat of conflict on its borders. It otherwise defies military logic in terms of preparation, contingency planning and response mechanism. Though less likely, it could be a purely military decision by an over-enthusiastic commander at whatever level without reference to Beijing. The incident has brought to the fore some positives: This also conveyed our resolve to stand by our treaty obligations. While that does not take away from the firm, correct. Also, this was in an area of trilateral dispute and hence of different dynamics, than would be of a bilateral one, either Sino-Indian or Sino-Bhutanese. Our response here was a shift in gear and a new benchmark. The whole incident also brings to the fore some complex issues, especially for Bhutan; it would probably look at it as one that they could do without. Our postulation was also of treaty obligations with Bhutan. Doklam apart, Bhutan has bilateral boundary disputes with China. We need to reassure Bhutan and must be prepared with our responses across the spectrum for any Chinese assertiveness to marginalise our stature or of our relations with Bhutan. The border problems obviously arise out of our history and with our understanding of the geography. It is very wisely said that if we forget our history we are likely to repeat our mistakes and if we forget our geography we are doomed in advance. The Late Jaswant Singh in his book, Defending India, aptly illustrates the complexities at the time of our Independence in understanding the issues related to geography and a sense of territoriality to Indian strategic thought and culture. It is extremely relevant that at the time of our independence, we were unaware of the exactness of our borders; a legacy left behind, deliberately or circumstantially or otherwise by the British. It may through the POK and more, adds to the even be the beginning of a new phase of complexity of the security challenges of tactical jostling in all our disputed pockets our country. Chat with x Hamster Live girls now! Ads by TrafficStars. To watch the video you need to enable Javascript in your browser. 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The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions.

It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles.

The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles.

Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb, check this out technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth.

Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed link sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3.

Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb primary types of hypersonic weapons.

The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVsare launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception.

HGVs Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems.

Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of this web page is the hypersonic cruise missile HCMwhich is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines.

Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance.

Because Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time.

One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology.

Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning.

At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades.

The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide.

This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology.

It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos Read more and entirely indigenous.

India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in Aprilwhich will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions.

The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country.

While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing.

While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector.

That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi.

Ideal Line Versoix

It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel.

Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such link view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb defence and military history.

He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November Compilation of Massive Facials: More Girls Chat with x Hamster Live girls now!

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To ensure security and affordability. For decades to come. Dear Readers, Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb memories of the Mumbai attack in November have been difficult to obliterate. Terror came from the sea and jolted the security apparatus to the harsh reality that our coastal defences had to be strengthened. As we near the end ofGeopolitics takes stock of our coastal defences. How far have we progressed in the defence of our coastal cities? Similarly, the two island territories on the East and West has not only been secured — the comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved — from threats but efforts have been made to Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb use of the advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region.

Keeping these developments in sight, Geopolitics has taken the step to highlight how our islands can play major roles as maritime shields. At the same time, moves have been taken to energise the fishing community to become the eyes and ears of the security agencies and help in the protection of the coastline. There is an insight into the measures taken by the security agencies to take the coastal population into confidence to boost the defences. Technology too has been playing its part to provide muscle to our coastal defences.

We take a look at the foolproof Coastal Surveillance Network — radar surveillance network — not just along the coastline, but also one that integrates data from Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb.

Raksha Mantri Nirmala Sitharaman has stressed the need to secure the maritime interests of the nation. Through the last year, India has enhanced the deployment of ships, submarines and aircraft from the South China Sea and Sea of Japan in the East to the Persian Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean in the West and the shores of Australia in the South including the focused efforts to deter piracy attempts off the Gulf of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb.

Our navy has participated in Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb number of bilateral exercises with the US and the Japanese Navy. The coasts cannot remain secure if the skies remain undefended. So, while steps have been taken to train our fighter pilots in night flying, there is an urgent need for India to act quickly to nullify any possible sanctions that could arise from the here of a US-Russia-China cartel for the production of hypersonic glide weapons that will have the potential to put an end to the existing system of nuclear deterrence.

The Russians — we have a year-old relationship — are not far behind: Meanwhile, Dassault Aviation has taken its first solid step in India when the foundation stone of the Rafale manufacturing facility was laid recently. This issue of Geopolitics is power-packed for your reading pleasure. Fishing community and residents of the coastal areas can act as the eyes and ears of the India security agencies in protecting the vast coastline of India against enemy evil designs. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage The Doklam face-off with China has been resolved but it is unlikely that the Chinese will forget it in a hurry.

What is likely is that the LAC will be an alibi to signal disagreement elsewhere and influence an outcome suitable to China. Their words and actions could hurl the Korean peninsula and much of the region into a nuclear battleground.

It is passed on to our readers without any responsibility on our part. Material appearing in the magazine cannot be reproduced in whole or in part s without prior permission. The publisher assumes no responsibility for material lost or damaged in transit. The publisher reserves the right to refuse, withdraw or otherwise deal with all advertisements without explanation. All advertisements must comply with the Indian Advertisements Code.

The publisher will not be liable for any loss caused by any delay in publication, error or failure of advertisement to appear. Combined with the other regular sections, this issue of Geopolitics brilliantly celebrated the history of that force of our country which is the epitome of professionalism and whose services and support with. The Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb will be remembered for its contents: Ram Gaur Rajasthan.

Pooja Singh Raipur All correspondence may be addressed to: Or mail to: India must continue to buy Russian weapons because a strong defence industry in that country is Hyper porn hedge against a Western weapons cartel.

In September RT did it again when its website uploaded a disgusting video of a destitute Indian woman giving birth on a footpath. Indians are used to witnessing such hateful imagery in CNN and the BBC, but coming from a friendly nation it is shocking. Coming in the backdrop of India and Russia drifting away from each other — geopolitically, economically and more importantly as defence partners — such unflattering news coverage may have been okayed by the Kremlin.

That title will either go to the US or Israel which are rushing in with a spate of manufacturing deals. The geopolitical windfall India has landed. The complete isolation of Pakistan in Washington is a direct result of the billions of weapons India has purchased from the US.

In contrast, there is little incentive for India to boost ties with Russia. One major reason is US economic sanctions. With virtually the entire Western world ganging up against it, Russians are feeling cornered, forcing Moscow into a bearhug click the following article Beijing, which is Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Europe as the top buyer of Russian oil, gas Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb minerals.

In this backdrop, India cannot expect much from its relationship with Russia. Bilateral please click for source deals lack the fanfare of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Soviet era. On top of it India has been furiously diversifying its arms imports because Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb is Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to sort out its unreliable spares supply chain even as Moscow goes slow on transfer of technology.

There is also a sense. While India should cop some blame for not entering into an airtight agreement on servicing and spares, the Russians seem to have adopted a completely unhelpful attitude when the Navy is facing a crisis.

So from both sides, there is a push against each other. Before exploring whether India should give Russia the status of a major weapons provider, it is worth looking at the history of bilateral defence ties.

Initially, Moscow was interested in supplying weapons to Pakistan rather than India because it was hopeful of Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb influence in the strategically important country. However, the Pakistanis spurned Soviet overtures as they did not want to be friends with a communist regime.

This was typical of Read more who were acting holier than Handjob tickling video Arabs, who had no problems being close allies.

Excerpts from his conversation with Geopolitics. As China turned from a loyal ally to implacable enemy, Russia finally agreed to sell high performance weapons to India. Although these were stripped down export versions, not only were Russian weapons cheaper in comparison with.

Sudanese Porn2 Watch Video Condam Xxxvideo. Islands offer vast manoeuvring space and provides depth and reach to project power beyond territorial boundaries. Islands act as forward military posts, surveillance posts, logistic bases, unsinkable aircraft carrier, pivot for projection of powers in omni-direction, pivot for anti-access and area denial and a potent tool of maritime deterrence. It is most vital asset to secure seas, maintain a permanent presence at areas of vital national interests and acts as formidable shield to the peninsula. Island territories are irreplaceable in. Islands as ocean wealth: Oceans are fast turning into reservoirs of resources to sustain economic development. Andaman group of islands have added approximately sq km of Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ and Lakshadweep group of islands have added approximately. Blue economy is based on the ocean for food, fuel and raw materials. Islands act as sea bases for exploration, logistic support and storage of raw materials for transportation to mainland. These islands would ultimately pave the passage to prosperity from the ocean. In fact, the island territories add to the value of ocean wealth and make deep sea mining a possibility. It is a matter of time when India will be able to commercially mine gas from Andaman Sea. To maintain food self-sufficiency India will have to explore and exploit the marine food commercially. Andaman Nicobar Islands are just 22 nautical miles from Myanmar, 90 nautical miles from Indonesia and nautical miles from Thailand. It gives India an option to establish greater bilateral relations for mutual cooperation for trade, tourism and cultural exchange programme. Presence of military on these islands does help to take proactive actions while extending assistance during humanitarian crisis. These islands also assist in prevention of crimes on the high seas. Islands can be effectively used as tool of military diplomacy with the neighbouring states. Island territories have been vulnerable to illegal immigrants because large number of these islands and atolls are uninhabited. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands are under pressure from the migrants from Bangladesh, Rohingya from Myanmar and even criminals. Unfortunately the political patronage is always forthcoming as a result the Andaman Nicobar islands are under constant threat of colonisation. Colonisation impacts security and makes it difficult for the government to create infrastructure since real estate is at premium on the islands and squatters under the garb of humanitarian angle make it a political issue to disrupt the process of infrastructure development. Subversion of population: Andaman group of islands and even Lakshadweep are already facing the problem of radicalisation of Muslim. These islands have the potential of being used for electronic interception, monitoring of SLOCs, radar sites for interception of missiles and maritime activities apart from basing the air and naval assets. It is not possible to convert islands into fortress by fencing hence are prone to subversive elements entering and exiting from the islands. Threat from non-state actors: The threat could be even through state sponsored non-state actors. There have been cases where even Chinese fishing trawlers were seen operating in Andaman Sea close to the islands. Gunrunning, drugs and narcotics trafficking and trans-nationalcriminal syndicatescould pose serious threat in connivance with theradicalised youths. They can cause serious damage to critical infrastructure and disrupt developmental activities with the support of subverted population. Encroachment and poaching within EEZ: The EEZs are fast becoming a source of blue economy and treasure of huge raw materials. The rising population, harsh living conditions and competition for resource acquisition among the rim nations has increased the necessity to protect EEZ more vigorously. Almost 34 per cent of Bangladesh population is dependent upon fishing in rivers and open sea and thus trespassing of maritime boundary for fishing in Indian EEZ is happening frequently. It creates a situation of rift between maritime neighboursand also lead to unsustainable poaching and loot of marine resources. Raising bogey of sovereignty: Islands have always been a constant source of claims and counter claims of sovereignty among the maritime neighbours. Case in point has been, Kachchatheevu Island between India Sri Lanka, New Moore Island that is now submerged in water and Coco Island that has become a big source of anxiety for India due to alleged presence of Chinese military on the island. Islands are important link to make a formidable maritime shield to secure the mainland. The geostrategic strength of the islands are required to be consolidated and vulnerabilities are required to be eliminated by development of infrastructure, building military capabilities, and putting in place a robust mechanism to prevent illegal immigration and subversion of population. Boots on the ground on major islands: Islands cannot be guarded in the open sea by remote control. Presence of costal police and amphibious forces is imperative so that they are able to keep an eye on the dispersed island territories. The forces deployed to secure islands should be able to reach the desired locations using Air Sea and land routes before non-state actors or subversive elements are able to cause collateral damage. Apart from physical domination electronic surveillance of the islands have become a necessity. The deployment of forces should not be sacrosanct but based on periodic review of security threats. This review would also determine how much land forces, air and naval assets should be adequate to secure these islands. Maritime surveillance: Physical domination of sea is becoming most important to secure the islands. There is a need for comprehensive maritime surveillance by sea, air and electronically. Endeavour should be that someone should always be looking at these critical assets in the sea from ground, air, spaceand from the sea. Rapid reaction by air and sea: Rapid reaction by air and sea is vital. Best way to defend own territories is to have proactive approach. This would require certain elements of air, ground and naval assets to be in readiness profile to react to any contingency that may arise to the unoccupied islands and critical infrastructure. Development of islands as unsinkable aircraft carriers: These islands would become strategic assets if they are developed as comprehensive military bases that are able to project power and secure far seas. Enough has been written on it however, what. If the islands are holding lethal military capabilities it would have deterrence value but if they are without military wherewithal they become liability and vulnerable to encroachment. Control of movement of population: Illegal migration due to extreme poverty, harsh living conditions among South Asian nations and subversive designs of adversaries needs to be checked. There is a need to check antecedents of all citizens and deport the illegal immigrants. Population census in island territories is easy to monitor but authorities have to ensure that illegal immigrants deported and alsopunished for breaking the laws of. Infrastructure development and environmental balance: There is a need to maintain balance in environmental protection and infrastructure development. When it comes to development of critical strategic infrastructure environmental laws need to be relaxed. If a radar site has to be created it should not be prevented due to natural habitat of birds or animals. There are geographical constraints for creation of special infrastructure and thus environmental laws in such cases should be relaxed or waved. Darshana M. India must not create a mistake by deferring capability development. There is no scope to lose these islands by passive aggression through forced occupation of critical land mass in the high seas. If certain islands are required to be vacated of population for strategic and security reasons, government should be firm and do it for the nation. But that does not mean abandon the legitimate Indians their right to life. Such people should be relocated and their life support system reestablished after relocation. The fishing community and the residents of the coastal areas can act as the eyes and ears of the India security agencies in protecting the vast coastline of India against enemy evil designs. This Geopolitics Bureau compilation enumerates the measures taken by the security agencies in taking the coastal population into confidence in this task. Statewise Standard Operating Procedures SOPs for coordination among several agencies on coastal security issues have also been instituted. The existing surveillance system for maritime. The NC3I. Further, the National Automatic Identification System NAIS chain, comprising 87 stations is also functional and to enhance the presence of Coast Guard along the coastal areas, Coast Guard Stations have increased from 22 in to 42 in The National Committee on Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security NCSMCS , under the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary, is the highest body to monitor the progress in respect of coastal security initiatives including any shortfall and decides on measures to plug the gaps. Various measures were taken to strengthen coastal security like Navy's Joint Operations Centres as command and control hubs for coastal security at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair are fully operational. In addition to continuous patrolling by Navy and Coast Guard, modern technical measures have also been implemented for coastal surveillance, by way of a chain of 74 Automatic Identification System AIS receivers, for gapless cover along the entire coast, according to the navy. In , the National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network NC3I was set in National Capital Region to over-arching coastal security network collates data about all ships, dhows, fishing boats and all other vessels operating near our coast, from multiple technical sources including the AIS and radar chain. This Nodal Hub for the coastal security of our country, which has been conceptualised by the Indian Navy, is a major step in the establishment of a coastal security shield along the coast. In February , the Indian Coast Guard ICG was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters, including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Coast Guard is also responsible for overall coordination between Central and State agencies in matters relating to Coastal Security. This notification makes it compulsory for the boats to become identifiable at all times when they are sailing out at sea. In separate instructions, issued by the Ministry of Shipping, the government also wanted to ensure all fishing boats and vessels are registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, an umbrella law, as against the current practice of registering them separately under their respective state government enacted marine and fisheries regulation laws, based on their size and its opertions and use. The notifications were issued on June 24, , and it was then expected that these measures would bring about uniformity in the registration of all types of sea-faring vessels that are not large cargo vessels. The aim of these instructions were to ensure there was no doubt about the identity of the vessels when venturing into the sea and that there was a record of all the vessels that go out fishing in Indian waters. This also made it easy to know who owned the vessels in a centralised data system. This practice of keeping records through easily identifiable Automatic Identification System transponders, it was expected, would go a long way to prevent November Mumbaistyle terror attacks, where MV Kuber, an Indian fishing boat, was hijacked. The Pakistani terrorists, including Ajmal Amir Kasab who was arrested, had boarded MV Kuber in international waters off the coast of Gujarat after seizing it from the fishermen on the high seas. The terrorists easily slipped into Mumbai, by sailing close to the shore till around four nautical miles off Mumbai and then they got into motorised rubber dingies to reach the shore itself. The terrorists had killed the vessel's pilot, Amarsinh Solanki, before they hit the Mumbai shores. The notifications to ensure fishing vessels registration came about after it was felt among the Indian security apparatus that had MV Kuber been fitted with a sophisticated AIS transponder, under a centralised services system, it could have been easily detected. This would have been possible through a coded messaging system on the transponders for the pilots of the vessels to use and communicate with the security agencies in case of distress, such as hijacking or theft or robbery. Currently, only the bigger ships use such transponders and this facility is now available too smaller boats too. The transponders are devices that help sea-faring vessels to electronically exchange data, including their identity,. A fishing boat returning home: Such boats are often hijacked by smugglers and terrorists for illegal activities. Saab implemented the entire gamut of the project, which included installation, commissioning, training and support, along with their Indian partner, Elcome Marine Services. The project was signed by Saab and Elcome Marine Services combine in November and it was completed ahead of schedule during in Elcome has delivered the whole network, VSATs, leased lines, installation, project management, design, and installation. Elcome with support from Saab will be maintaining the system for till The NAIS network has suitable interfaces and these have already been incorporated for adding radar, cameras and other sensors. The system has already been integrated with existing radar and AIS in the country to provide a holistic overview of the coastal maritime domain. The NAIS network would thus play a vital role in meeting the long-term coastal surveillance needs of India. This project is one of the largest national AIS- based coastal surveillance systems ever to be deployed. Regular exercises are conducted to validate these SOPs. To revalidate the coastal security mechanism and bring awareness among the fishermen at sea, regular boarding operations are also being conducted to validate and check the credentials of the occupants of the vessels including their Identity Cards and Registration Documents. Based on intelligence inputs, Coastal Security operations are conducted by the ICG in coordination with other stakeholders. To develop their capacity, the ICG has been imparting regular training to Marine Police personnel since The training. The ICG contributes towards development and implementation of an effective security mechanism to combat seaborne threats. The security matrix of the ICG encompasses a host of operations and involves measures undertaken to address coastal security, offshore security, anti-terrorism, anti-piracy and port security. Nationwide, over such exercises have been conducted till date since , and this has strengthened coastal security markedly. The issue of ID cards to all fishermen with a single centralised database, registration of over 2 lakh fishing vessels operating off our coasts and equipping fishing boats with suitable equipment, to facilitate vessel identification and tracking are some of the other steps. Our fishing communities are adept mariners, whose cooperation is indispensable to our maritime security. This has been achieved by spreading awareness in these communities through coastal security awareness campaigns, conducted by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, in all coastal districts of the country. During these campaigns, fishermen have been strongly advised and warned not to cross the International Maritime Boundary as it is in the interest of their safety. Fishermen today own GPS receivers and are therefore fully aware of their positions at sea. During the implementation of Coastal Security Scheme Phase-I, various Coastal Security measures including the supply of interceptor boats were undertaken. The scheme has been implemented up to March Thus, several communities related and localised measures have been undertaken by both the Central and State governments over the last nine years, aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering apparatus for a gapless coastal security surveillance and actionable intelligence using human and technical sources. At least, 26 foreign nationals were among those killed by the terrorists. The terrorists, arrived in Mumbai on the night of November 26, after travelling from Karachi by sea. All of them, save one - Ajmal Kasab, - were eventually killed in counter-terror operations. Kasab, captured alive, was sentenced to death by a special anti-terror court in May , and hanged at the Yerawada central prison in Pune in November At least 18 Indian security personnel were killed in the attack. Among them were Mumbai Anti-Terrorist squad chief. It was Omble's supreme sacrifice that made the capture of Ajmal Kasab possible. On the night of November 26 near Girgaum Chowpatty, he grabbed the barrel of Kasab's assault rifle, and - when. Lashkar-e-Taiba operations commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi stands accused - along with six others - of abetment to murder, attempted murder, and planning and executing the Mumbai attack, in a case that has been drawn out for more than seven years in Pakistan. Ashok Kamte er accused, former LeT member Sufayan Zafar - who was arrested on charges that he financed the Mumbai attacks - was last year absolved by Pakistan's Federal Investigative Agency. The prosecution in the trial, on its part, said in October that India hadn't responded to Pakistan's request that it send 24 witnesses in the case to testify in court and that the case couldn't move forward until India did so. The seven persons accused of planning and executing the Mumbai attacks - including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi - in September challenged the legality of a Pakistani judicial commission which went to India in to probe the attacks. Lakhvi was released from prison on bail in Hafiz Saeed, founder of the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT and the chief of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa or JuD, a charity organisation considered to be a cover for the LeT , is another key mastermind of the attack. Pakistan, too, gave in to international pressure and banned the JuD, and placed Hafiz Saeed under house arrest for months, but ended up letting him go. He now lives as a free citizen in Lahore, and India's demands that he be brought to book have been met with the response that Pakistan doesn't have the evidence it needs to prosecute him. Speaking at an event in New Delhi, Durrani said the commandostyle terror attack was carried out by a. However, Durrani stressed that neither the Pakistan government nor the InterServices Intelligence ISI was aware of the terror plot hatched on its soil. Durrani was removed from the post in New Delhi has provided ample evidence to Islamabad over the involvement of top Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in the November However, Pakistan has denied all such allegations blaming 'non-state actors' for the incident. American citizen David Headley, who admitted scouting targets for the attack, has testified that the plot was hatched with at least one Pakistani intelligence official and a navy frogman. The positive fallout of the Mumbai terror attacks was that it brought the importance of maritime security, in particular, the coastal security, to the forefront and into the consciousness of. This resulted in the then government signalling a complete overhaul of its maritime and related coastal security apparatus. The national security establishment decided and assigned the overall responsibility of coastal security, both coastal and offshore, to the Indian Navy, as the Mumbai terror attacks exposed the shocking lack of coordination among maritime and security agencies of the country. It also created a new north-western region for the Coast Guard in Gujarat. Apart from designating naval commanders as Coastal Defence Commanders, the government said it would also provide the Navy with a 1,man 'Sagar Prahari Bal' for securing its installations. The government has since moved ahead in putting these decisions into effect and to augment the force accretion such as an increase in the number of ships, aircraft, helicopters, bases and manpower for both the Navy and the Coast Guard. The government approved certain important measures for strengthening maritime and coastal security against threats from the sea. The government decided to establish a national Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence 3CI network for real-time maritime domain awareness linking the operations rooms of the Navy and the Coast Guard, both at the field and apex levels. Navy would control all joint operations, conducted along with the Coast Guard, to ensure that assets were optimally deployed and synergy was maintained between the two organisations. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus was given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for India's long coastline. With these measures, the government felt that a new focus would be given for effectively managing threats from the sea and security for the over 7,km coastline. The specialised 'Sagar Prahari Bal' force has been established for the protection of naval assets, and bases on both the East and West coasts, as well as the island territories of the country. The Navy has been provided with 80 new Fast Interception Craft for seafront patrolling by the new force. The setting up of a new North-West Region for the Coast Guard, with the responsibility to secure the Gujarat coast that shares maritime borders with Pakistan, would see the creation of a new post of Coast Guard Commander for the region. The government has also decided to install Vessel and Air Traffic Management System for all offshore development areas, as has been done in the western region by the petroleum ministry. Along with this, the government procured Immediate Support Vessels for offshore security by both the Petroleum Ministry and the Navy. In the interim, patrolling using hired crafts was done. To strengthen the Coast Guard, the government set up nine additional Coast Guard stations to integrate into the 'hub and spoke' concept with coastal police. For the Coast Guard, new posts of an additional director general and three deputy directors general were sanctioned. The force has also seen an expansion of its fleet by 20 percent and a 30 percent increase in shore support. To improve the intelligence set-up of Coast Guard, adequate manpower resources was also sanctioned. Among the decisions taken in the aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks and implemented over the last nine years include the creation of Joint Operation Centres JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair under the charge of existing Naval Commander-in-Chiefs. The Indian Coast Guard was additionally designated as the authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters including areas to be patrolled by the Coastal Police. The Director-General Coast Guard was designated as Commander Coastal Command and given responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters relating to coastal security. The government also approved and funded the proposal for setting. This project was handed over to the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways for implementation, in coordination with Coast Guard. Further, the decision was taken to install AIS Transponders on vessels below tonnes. This work too is being done by the Ministry of Shipping, in coordination with the Coast Guard. The operational decision that has been implemented over the last nine years include the regular conduct of Coastal Security exercises in all states, in conjunction with the Coast Guard, State and Central government agencies. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard also enhanced their surface and air surveillance using their ships and aircraft along the coast and in all offshore development areas. This is a bid to get help from the fishing community to act as the eyes and ears of the national coastal security agencies. This course is of two weeks duration. The training is imparted in general seamanship, maintenance and boat handling. In addition, each Command has also undertaken training of Marine Police and Customs personnel on being requested for the same. No request for training has been turned down so far. The country's maritime interests encompass maintenance of the territorial integrity of India against all types of seaward challenges and threats as well as protection of our maritime trade and the merchantmen that embody it. The Indian Navy is fully prepared to safeguard the maritime interests of the nation. The agencies have the adequate capability and are also continuously evolving to meet the new challenges. Since the security challenges are only bound to increase in the times to come, the Indian Navy's assets acquisition plan has also been tailored to meet this requirement. The Coastal Radar Network project has digital signature spread over the vast Indian. Ocean Region, with key shipping lanes of the world under its direct gaze. Coastal Surveillance Network CSN Phase-I is already in place and comprises of 46 coastal radars including 10 in the island territories. The project will act as a "force multiplier" in the coastal security apparatus. The then Defence Minister, A K Antony, inaugurated the clusters at Mumbai and Porbandar, marking a major step forward in the security mechanism. The static sensors project of coastal surveillance network aims at providing a gap-free coastal surveillance completed both on the mainland and the islands. Pioneered by the Indian Coast Guard ICG , the Network augments the force's shore-based electronic surveillance capacity along the entire coastline, including Maharashtra and Gujarat that witness a high traffic density and are too close to Pakistan across the Arabian Sea. As the western coastline is a highly sensitive one, India decided to operationalise this Coastal Surveillance Radar chain in Maharashtra and Gujarat ahead of the completion schedule of the project. The objective was to have this mechanism available for immediate utilisation. Under the Maharashtra cluster, the sensors are operational with radar stations fitted at Tarapur, Korlai, Tolkeshwar and Devgad and envisage real-time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles. With the coastal radar network's help, the maritime forces will surely be able to devise an objective-based, rapid and effective response mechanism against perceived threats. The maritime forces will utilise their surface and air assets in such a way that they can derive maximum benefit from this surveillance network. Under Phase-I of the network, static sensors have been put up at 46 locations along the Indian coast, including on island territories. The Coastal Surveillance Network relies on a chain of electro-optic sensors, such as radars, and day and night vision cameras that are being installed on lighthouses and towers that look out at the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The key challenge in setting up the scheme has been in transmitting the data picked up from multiple sensors along the coast to surveillance centres located in the interior and integrating the data into a coherent operational picture. Data fusion was a key design challenge. If two adjoining radars pick up a single boat, which often happens, the software must recognised that and combine those two images into that of a single boat. Besides integrating multiple inputs into a common operational picture, the software allows the Remote Operating Station to remotely manipulate its coastal radars and cameras — through a Camera Management System — to observe suspicious objects in greater detail. In a quick demonstration staged for Business Standard, an oil tanker, which had been detected by a thermal-imaging night vision camera at a distance of 36 kilometres from the coast, was declared a suspicious vessel. A click by the operator on the oil tanker's screen image automatically fed. The cameras and radars are Israeli, but BEL worked on developing them indigenously too. In Phase I, the coast guard is setting up, along with 46 electro-optic sensor stations in high-threat areas, 12 Remote Operating Stations. This is being expanded in Phase II to cover the entire coastline. For example, radar stations in Dwarka and Navodra feed into a Remote Operating Station at Porbandar, about km away. Distance is irrelevant, with data being transmitted through two dedicated lines of 2 MBPS each. For this, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency but coordinates with multiple agencies, including the coastal state governments; the fisheries department; the department of lighthouses and lightships; and port authorities, among others. The mainland radars in various coastal states of India have been operationalised in , while the island territory radars. The larger purpose and strategic reach for India's planned coastal surveillance network came during Modi's one-day visit to Seychelles, where he publicly launched the first of a planned 32 coastal surveillance radar stations in the Indian Ocean. The public nature of the CSR deployment highlights India's eagerness to signal its enduring security interest in the Indian Ocean. The radar deployment in Seychelles comes as China has increased its naval operations in the eastern Indian Ocean. In , India grew particularly concerned when a. Chinese submarine was spotted docking at a port in Colombo in Sri Lanka. China has additionally announced its intention to invest in port facilities in and around the Indian Ocean. Since then, China has also opened a turn-around base for its warships at Port de Djibouti. Modi told senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during his visit that India would work to set up radar stations across the region, including in Mauritius and Maldives. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfil our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," Modi said. Modi expressed the hope that "Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The system is automated and has significantly enhanced coastal surveillance capabilities of Mauritius Coast Guard. To expand the maritime picture and enhance maritime security capabilities, India and Mauritius have commenced sharing of 'White Shipping' data between Indian Navy and National Coast Guard, Mauritius. The Defence Acquisition Council, the highest body for approval of defence programmes led by the Defence Minister, gave its nod to the acceptance of the necessity for the Phase-II of the 38 radar stations. In addition, the Ministry of Defence also approves four mobile surveillance stations along with the integration of vessel traffic management systems in two places on Gujarat coastline. With this chain of coastal radars coming up, the Indian security agencies assure the nation that they would possess 24 X 7 X days of radar coverage that will ensure terror strikes and illegal activities in the seas along the Indian coastline would be prevented and the nation is secure from such threats. However, some gaps were still found in the radar coverage of the entire Indian coastline and a gap analysis was carried out by the Coast Guard, based on which the Phase-II of the project was conceived and planned. This project is part of the intensive efforts to achieve complete Maritime Domain Awareness MDA so that all security agencies, state governments and central government have real-time pictures and data of Indian waters. In March , Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi went on a tour of the Indian Ocean region that was long overdue and was keenly expected by the nations he was visiting. He had to leave out Maldives from his original itinerary after the government there in the atoll nation jailed a key opposition leader. While on those visits to the three nations in the Indian Ocean Region, Modi addressed defence and security cooperation in each capital. In concrete terms, Modi's visit highlighted India's continuing interest in deploying and maintaining a network of coastal surveillance radars across the region. The coastal surveillance network has led to heightened intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR capabilities and maritime domain awareness for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, and the nations in the region that are now part of this network. What has India been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide the country to dominate the Indian Ocean region? Geopolitics Bureau takes a look. Add to the Indian mainland the island territories on either side and the depth of the strategic reach amplifies multifold. With the advent of the 21st Century,. India has awakened to the strategic potential of its island territories and have since been making efforts to exploit this geographical advantage it has, primarily to dominate some of the crucial sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean region. But that's the geographical position that gives India a stationary aircraft carrier overlooking the world's busiest of sea lanes passing through the Malacca Straits, a gateway to energise security to several key nations in Asia, particularly India's archrival China. India's Defence Minister Nirmala. Sitharaman visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on an official visit on October 18 and 19, to coincide with Diwali celebrations with the troopers posted there. During her stay there on an official visit, she visited the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the tri-service military formation that looks after the security of the island territories there but also secures Indian interests in the region. The Eight Degree Channel, which separates Minicoy Island and Maldives, witnesses maritime traffic of about 30 to 40 merchant vessels a day. A look at what India has been doing in the two island territories on the East and West to not only secure them from threats but also to make use of the benefits and advantage these territories provide India to dominate the Indian Ocean region. Some estimates put it that around 80 percent of China's energy security imports pass through the sea lanes of Malacca Strait from the Middle East. Around 40 percent of the world trade in value pass through this strait, carried by over 50, commercial vessels annually. One of the most important appoints that the present government has made to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is about 1, km away from the mainland, is to appoint former Indian Navy Chief Admiral D. Joshi retired as its Lieutenant Governor. The km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprise a chain of islands, of which a little more than 30 are inhabited. The island territories of India's East are a mere 90 km from Indonesia from its southern-most point and Joshi has eight years ago served in the island chain as the Andaman and Nicobar tri-service military Commander-inChief. That gives him a vast knowledge of the island territories and its military advantages to the nation. The archipelago is also India's eastern-most defence post that helps it take a more decisive military role in its Act East policy to build on the relationships with the ASEAN nations. Port Blair and Car Nicobar are important staging posts for India's warships and military aircraft in the region. That's a huge military strength and asset for India to counter the growing assertiveness of China that has been venturing into the Indian Ocean Region, considered India's backyard, for the last 10 years now. Several key nations from the region that have disputes with China, such as Vietnam, Philippines and others, join the Indian Navy's MILAN drills, apart from Indonesia, which conducts joint coordinated patrols of the region with the Indian Navy warships. India has plans to increase the number of warships, which will call Port Blair as their home base. The Indian Navy also has the advantage of having floating docks for repairs at mid-sea only under the Andaman and Nicobar Command, in. The Army has a brigade strength on the island chain, but will also include an amphibious warfare force that will be permanently stationed here. Even otherwise, the island chain provides the amphibious units with a very ideal location for training of their unique manoeuvres. About the air element of security, the Air Force has repaired and got the Car Nicobar air force station and runway back in order after the Tsunami on a war footing. But the added strength for the Andaman and Nicobar Command is the raising of a new air station at Campbell Bay at the southern-most tip of India, also called the Indira Point. INS BAAZ, the airstrip at that point, has been raised into a launching pad for India's surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft such as the Boeing P8I, providing India with the advantage of keeping a watch on any Chinese submarine that may enter the Indian Ocean region, as was seen earlier in The airstrip was activated half a decade ago and has been serving the Indian military well. Andaman and Nicobar Islands air defence infrastructure was bolstered with the tri-service military command working on projects to strengthen a string of airstrips for operating both transport and fighter aircraft. The strategically important archipelago has airstrip also at Shipur in the northern Andaman that has recently got approval for expansion of. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration has submitted a comprehensive security plan after consulting Coast Guard, Navy and other stakeholders, for implementation over a period of eight years, in three phases , and The comprehensive security plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been approved. In December , India's coastal security apparatus around Lakshadweep chain of islands received a boost when a new Coast Guard CG headquarters and a station were inaugurated at Kavaratti and Minicoy respectively. The Coast Guard headquarters and station came up at a time when the Indian waters off Lakshadweep Islands chain in the Arabian Sea had witnessed increased pirate activity. The pirate threat in the region has been successfully warded off and the security notification from the global maritime authorities have moved far away from the Indian territorial waters now, all due to the intensive naval action from Indian warships in the region. The new Coast Guard district headquarters at Kavaratti and the Minicoy station were part of the service's expansion plans for the Eleventh FiveYear Plan that ended in The two. The new establishments of the Coast Guard in the island territories also facilitate greater synergy between Coast Guard, administration of Lakshadweep and other agencies. It is important to have effective coordination and sharing of intelligence to have an effective response to any fast developing security challenge at sea. With these establishments in proximity to Maldives, India will now be capable of responding to any security situation in the atoll nation too, as has been witnessed in the late s when India had to send its special forces to ward off a terrorists group's coup bid. The coastal security set up in Lakshadweep chain is undergoing major modifications and restructuring so as to keep a check on pirate and illegal activities in and around the Indian waters and its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ. Lakshadweep already had a Coast Guard station functioning at Kavaratti. Apart from the Minicoy Coast Guard station, Lakshadweep already got a Coast Guard air station there, with another one at Androth has come up in April The two air stations also aid in civilian air traffic to the island chain. At the air stations, the Coast Guard operates its Dorniers, apart from its helicopters. The Indian Navy too uses the facility to operate its helicopters in the region. The Arabian Sea, closer to the Indian mainland and Lakshadweep Islands, had witnessed a few Somali pirate attacks on merchant vessels in The Indian Navy vessels had chased away two mother ships of the pirates who were operating in the area. For these reasons, the Lakshadweep Island chain's security is critical for India to maintain dominance in the region and on the shipping traffic through the Eight Degree Channel, apart from walking the talk on its stated role as the net security provider to the Indian Ocean region. As an autonomous all-weather selfpropelled SAM system, it is also used to protect small-sized installations against air attacks of aircrafts, helicopters, cruise missiles and other aerodynamic threats flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. It remains in use as the basic short-range SAM system for the militaries of many countries as because of its ability to still deal with classic air. However, it is understood that many of these countries are looking to replace or upgrade the SAM system. While considered a capable and effective short-range SAM system in its prime, the OSA-AKM system is now in need of upgrades to retain its combat effectiveness and improve reliability and maintainability by introducing new digital systems and obsolescence management. Legacy OSA-AKM SAM systems have low jamming immunity and survivability against the present generation 4th and 5th generation fighter aircraft in addition to poor reliability due to obsolescence of parts and equipment. As the modern air warfare environment will also see use of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons and extensive active and passive jamming of all types SAM systems, an OSAAKM upgrade is being offered to existing users of the SAM system. While still providing a more than useful capability as part of an overall air defence network, it is expected that OSA-AKM systems that are not modernised will be totally ineffective against the latest airborne threats within the next 10 years. The major problem with the system currently and one being experienced in no small measure by the IAF and the Army is that, most of spares. The other option of restarting production is an expensive alternative. The solution being offered by Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant KUPOL, JSC which is the manufacturer of OSA-AKM and part of the AD Concern AlmazAntey is to replace the old parts with new technologies, which deliver the additional benefits of faster operation of the system and reduction in size, weight and number of crew reduced from four to three and superior reliability and maintainability. According to company officials, on completion of the state tests, the production rate of the systems will be increased to cater for demand. The fitment of new parts and introduction of new technologies will extend the life of the OSA-AKM systems by minimum years enabling them to remain operational till and beyond without problem. As part of the modernisation effort the vacuum UHF amplifiers are replaced with semiconductor low-noise amplifiers in input units of receiving systems of target acquisition radar TAR and target tracking radar TTR. Also replaced are ten units of the old analogue computer with a modern digital computer which increases jamming immunity of the receiving systems, signal-processing system, in addition to improving target tracking accuracy and missile guidance. The introduction of modern digital systems which replace legacy analogue and hydraulic systems also significantly improve the performance of the shortrange SAM system, most notably in the areas of increase in number of targets that can be engaged, a greater noescape envelope velocity and altitude , in addition to adding the capability to engage and destroy small-sized low speed targets like unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The modernised OSA-AKM makes use of new digital technology and automation to reduce reaction and time and reduce the combat crew by one person, from three operators to two. Nowadays the dependency has been decreased essentially. The additional workspace liberated can be used to maintain a technical operator for prompt estimation. The present outdated TVoptical channel has been replaced with a new EO system which allows automatic lock-on and tracking of targets during. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will more lethal against airborne threats as a result of the greater kill-zone from ranges of 1. From ranges of 1. A missile vehicle can be prepared from travelling position to combat ready position within four minutes. Upgraded OSA-AKM systems will also have access to simulator training facilities, enabling training of the combat crew without use of real targets and missiles. The simulator training ability. The distinctive looking OSA combat vehicle also receives an upgrade to the Saman-M target system with the installation special-purpose software. The OSA-AKM has proved its combat capability in several conflicts around the world since it entered operational service and offers a unique combination of a short-range SAM system mounted on a wheeled chassis, which provides high cross-country capability and manoeuvrability, capability to overcome water obstacles without preliminary preparations and the ability to perform launches from the unprepared positions. It also features a high level of autonomy during combat operations and the rugged Russian design allows it to operate in any terrain. With the ability to conduct radar reconnaissance at stop and on the move and then engage the target with one or two missiles from stationary position or from a short halt, the upgraded OSA-AKM SAM system is a cost-effective air defence upgrade for defence against modern airborne threats, precision munitions, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The Russian army decided to continue using the OSA system till With hypersonic glide weapons having the potential to upend the existing system of nuclear deterrence, the influential Rand Corporation has recommended a US-RussiaChina cartel to prevent other countries from acquiring this technology. In the backdrop of India, Europe, Japan and Australia beginning to explore. The think tank recommends that: A new apartheid is sought to be created, with the haves possessing hypersonic weapons while the have-nots are armed with comparatively low-tech ballistic missiles. Clearly, hypersonic technology is to the twenty-first century what nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles were to the twentieth. Hypersonic missiles are capable of travelling over 5, kph, which gives them tremendous kinetic energy. To illustrate, a kg projectile travelling at Mach 2 twice the speed of sound will have an explosive power less than half a tonne of TNT, but the same missile with an impact speed of Mach 8 will deliver a TNT equivalent of 3. Also, unlike ballistic missiles, hypersonic projectiles are capable of manoeuvring multiple times in their trajectory. These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defences and to considerably reduce the response time for a nation under attack. For comparison, the BrahMos cruise missile flies at kph; the American Tomahawk has a speed of around kph. There are two primary types of hypersonic weapons. The first, hypersonic glide vehicles HGVs , are launched by rockets into the upper atmosphere. Unlike ballistic missiles that travel in a parabolic — and predictable — path to the target, HGVs glide through the stratosphere after they are released from their missile boosters. The glide phase allows HGVs to accelerate to hypersonic speeds and manoeuvre aerodynamically to evade interception. HGVs are unpowered vehicles that are designed to produce lift that is equal to their weight to keep them aloft at hypersonic speeds. They travel outside the altitude and speed envelopes of most modern air and missile defence systems. Terminal air defence systems would be challenged because a HGV can vary its impact point and associated trajectory throughout its flight time. HGVs also fly at lower altitudes compared with ballistic missiles. The second type of weapon is the hypersonic cruise missile HCM , which is powered all the way to its target by rockets or high-speed jet engines. Basically, a HCM is a cruise missile that operates at hypersonic speeds. Cruise missiles are already difficult to counter because of their unpredictable trajectories, low profiles and below the radar flight. Even the slower, subsonic ones such as the Tomahawk are deadly. For instance, in the Gulf War, it. The additional speed provided by an HCM will only shorten response times. Hypersonic technology is disruptive because it could upend this balance. Because hypersonic vehicles could do the rendezvous in a fraction of the time taken by ballistic missiles, it gives the other side little warning time. One is faced with the dilemma of launch or die. In the coming years, hypersonic technology could become a scare word like atomic bombs were during the Cold War. The US is currently the leader in space-based weapons technology. Its hypersonic glide programme is intended as a key component of its Conventional Prompt Global Strike system, which aims to hit any target on earth in less than 60 minutes. For, the temptation to escalate would be too great. Before the enemy knows what hit him, a second volley of nuclear-warhead carrying HGVs could fly in under the radar — that are only equipped to detect ballistic missiles — and deliver the death blow. The acquisition of such missiles by the United States, Russia and China could result in other powers compressing their response timelines in ways that set their strategic forces on hair-trigger states of readiness — such as a strategy of launch-on-warning. At the same time, the proliferation of hypersonic weapons beyond the big three could enable other countries to more credibly threaten attacks on major powers. The Rand report says: We note that these new missiles will almost exclusively affect nations that are otherwise equipped with effective defences against ballistic missiles. This may be a substantial number of nations over the coming decades. The genie is out of the bottle. India and Russia are currently working together on the hypersonic BrahMos II — the new improved version of the already successful BrahMos cruise missile. For all practical purposes BrahMos II is an unstoppable project. There are no restrictions on the range or speed of any missile that India. One, there are as many as Chinese-language texts on HGVs that mention Russia, constituting 52 per cent of the total number of Chinese articles and papers on hypersonic glide. This is more than mere coincidence. Further, a technology-sharing agreement with Belarus a close Russian ally may further spread the diffusion of hypersonic technology. It is separately researched and funded from BrahMos II and entirely indigenous. India recently completed construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel, inaugurated in April , which will fill some gaps in their testing capabilities. One of the test flights. Beyond that, the control list recommended in this report can be the basis for international discussions. The missile is known to have attended the speeds of Mach 7. The seriousness with which India is pursuing this technology can be assessed by the fact that India has built at least 12 hypersonic wind tunnels across the country. While developments in the US do not directly impact India, it must factor in Chinese hypersonic research as well as the very real possibility of Russia passing on the crown jewels of its weapons industry to Beijing. While one can speculate that this is an attempt to balance the Russian-Indian cooperation on the BrahMos family of missiles, it potentially suggests a future in which supplier states compete in offering hypersonic missiles to their friends and allies. A massive multidisciplinary effort is required to ensure that India does not lag behind in this critical sector. That is, prevent Beijing from exporting advanced weapons to Pakistan. Since New Delhi. It is a mystery what weed the people at Rand Corporation are smoking. It would be entirely counter-intuitive for China — a notorious proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to rogue states like Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Saudi Arabia — to be part of a hypersonic cartel. Instead, it wants Pakistan to gain entry into the NSG, fully aware of its highly questionable non-proliferation record. It could take several more years — by which time the remaining Cold War detritus would have retired from western think tanks — before such a view becomes mainstream in the western elites. The author is a New Zealand based journalist who covers defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe based foreign affairs portal. The BTA fleet was impacted by mid-air engine cuts which occurred on the Hindustan Piston Trainer 32 HPT and ultimately result in the entire fleet of more than aircraft being grounded due to flight safety concerns a few years ago. The basic and intermediate flying training role is undertaken by a fleet of 75 PC-7MKIIs, which were ordered in with an option clause for All 75 aircraft were delivered by November The Swiss type introduced the modern training era into the IAF for basic training, not only did the aircraft deliver excellent performance, but it also had a modern glass cockpit and avionics. Pilatus also delivered flight simulators and training devices along with the aircraft. HAL was tasked to make 68 HTTs in and total orders for the type could increase to as many as The Hindustan Turbo Trainer 40 HTT could go into production as early as next year and the all-important Stall and Spin trials will be completed before the end of the year. Approximately hours of flight testing will be required to complete these tests. Should the IAF so desire, the Hawk-i can be configured to carry air-to-air missiles, precision munitions, rockets and bombs. Production HTT aircraft will be available at a later stage with an armed variant fitted with unguided rockets, iron bombs and a gun pod. The major issues with the HJT were stall related problems which were overcome, but Spin trials could not be completed and production of the Sitara has since been stopped since the many issues plaguing the type are resolved. The Kiran has proved tough, robust and reliable and must be considered a successful design. HAL has also extended the life of Kiran aircraft and the aircraft will now be phased out from service in The Kiran Mk-I has a life of hrs. The induction of the Hawk AJT was. Additional Hawk Mks are also said to be in consideration, though no formal announcement of this requirement has been made till date. The Hawk-i is an indigenous effort by HAL to modernise the Hawk Mk by upgrading the cockpit, displays, avionics, mission computer, head-up display HUD and replacing equipment facing obsolescence. Hawk-i is basically an avionics upgrade and no structural upgrades have been done, the avionics upgrade on the aircraft is similar to what was shown at Aero India. The Hawk-i will be able to carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground weapons and it will have self-defence capabilities through Electronic Warfare EW systems, digital map generator. Other additions are a new dual hot stand-by mission computer. The HTT is an indigenously developed basic trainer aircraft and could enter production next year. Download Download video in p quality 7. Leave a comment Comments Compilation of Massive Facials: More Girls Chat with x Hamster Live girls now! Comments 38 Spam comments 0. Please log in or register to post comments. 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The sound of the gun salutes will soon fade away but the impeccable services of the pilot, soldier and gentleman will remain immortal in the skies. Pointing out how India should not repeat its mistake, like the one it did with US during the Cold War, where the two parties completely boycotted each other and the future outcome was such that former President Bill Clinton enforced the broad ban on technology exports to the country. The same situation can arise with Russia if not managed properly, and the story rightly brought out all the hows and whys the powers-that-be need to ponder upon.

Raj Verma Jaipur. In addition, the force is not only bringing in the latest weapons but is also modernising Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb approach. The interview has cleared all that a reader please click for source to know. Subuhi Verma Delhi. Many a time, there are face-offs and knowing Chinese language becomes very important. This is an opportunity for us to go in for this kind of high technology which has not been offered to us by any other country except Russia The impact of the project will be very positive.

The time has come for the relationship to be more on Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb commercial basis. The maritime powers post WW-II had. Considering the strategic importance of islands, US, France and UK retained control over the island territories to leverage maritime power to protect their vital strategic national interests in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.

India has islands and a large number of these islands are located almost all along the maritime boundary. Andaman Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb Nicobar. Islands and Lakshadweep group of islands give India a strategic advantage that no other country has in the northern Indian Ocean. These group of islands are a strategic leverage in relation to Chinese military advantages in the Northern theatre. Lakshadweep group of island have a different problem it has the potential of subversion of the population due to proximity to Maldives and influence of radicals over the Muslim population.

Given the threat andendeavour of the adversaries to weaken the control over these territories, India should secure these strategic pivots under an impregnable armour. If secured and developed these small pieces of land in the open sea has the Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb to be part of maritime shield of India.

India has the potential to be a net security provider along the SLOCs and also against non-traditional threats to the island nations of the IOR. In view of the rising significance, the island territories are under threat of illegal immigration, subversion of population and occupation of uninhabited territories. This can disrupt the plan for development Ygor the brazilian destroyer cumpilation tmb these islands as the military outposts and maritime hub centres. Islands territories have economic, national security and political ramification in the long term.

Islands as strategic pivots in the high seas: Islands offer vast manoeuvring space and provides depth and reach to project power beyond territorial boundaries. Islands act as forward military posts, surveillance posts, logistic bases, unsinkable aircraft carrier, pivot for projection of powers in omni-direction, pivot for anti-access and area denial and a potent tool of maritime deterrence.

It is most vital asset to secure seas, maintain a permanent presence at areas of vital national interests and acts as formidable shield to the peninsula. Island territories are irreplaceable in.

Islands as ocean wealth: Oceans are fast turning into reservoirs of resources to sustain economic development. Andaman group of islands have added approximately sq km click to see more Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ and Lakshadweep group of islands have added approximately.

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